Amaç – İşletmelerin karşılaştıkları ihracat engellerini ve bu engellerin ortadan kaldırılmasına yönelik önerileri konu alan zengin bir uluslararasılaşma literatürü 1980’lerden itibaren oluşmaya başlamıştır. Bununla birlikte farklı kurumsal çevrelerde faaliyet gösteren işletmelerin karşılaştıkları engellerin nedenlerine yönelik yeterli bir ilgi oluşmamıştır. Bu doğrultuda çalışmada, ihracat engellerinin arkasındaki nedenlerin kurumsal kuram perspektifinden ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu amacı gerçekleştirmek için “İhracat engellerinin oluşmasına neden olan kurumlar hangileridir?” sorusu cevaplandırılmıştır. Yöntem – Çalışma ihracat deneyimine sahip ve ana faaliyetlerini Ankara’da yürüten 23 KOBİ’yi kapsamaktadır. Kelly’s Rep testi ve açık uçlu sorularla toplanan veriler içerik analizi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Böylece işletmelerin karşılaştıkları ihracat engelleri ve bu engellerin arkasındaki kurumlar tespit edilmiştir. Bulgular – Çalışmanın bulguları farklı düzeylerde de olsa hem düzenleyici hem de bilişsel ve normatif kurumların ihracat engellerinin (kaynak engelleri, bilgi ve deneyim engelleri, prosedür engelleri ve dış kaynaklı engeller) ortaya çıkmasında etkili olduğunu göstermektedir. Diğer bir ifade ile engellerin nedenlerinin somut boyutlarının yanında farkındalık ya da değer yargıları gibi soyut boyutları da vardır. Tartışma – Çalışma ile literatüre ihracatın önündeki engellerin nedeni olarak kurumların incelendiği bir bakış kazandırılmıştır. Çalışma sonuçları: i) engellerin kendilerini ortaya çıkaran kurumlara bağlı olarak dinamizm sergilediklerini, ii) engelleri ortadan kaldırmaya yönelik politikaların hem düzenleyici hem de bilişsel ve normatif kurumların etkilerini gözetecek şekilde kapsayıcı olması gerektiğini, iii) engelleri ortadan kaldırmaya yönelik jenerik politikaların üretilmesinin zor olduğunu ve vaka özelinde politika uygulamalarına gidilmesinin önemini ortaya koymaktadır.
Purpose – Since the 1980s, a rich literature on internationalization addressing the export barriers facing enterprises and recommendations for eliminating them has emerged. However, there is scarce information about the causes of the barriers faced by the enterprises operating in different institutional environments. In this respect, the study aims to reveal the reasons behind export barriers from institutional theory perspective. In order to achieve this aim, the question of "Which institutions cause export barriers?" was answered. Methodology – The study includes 23 SMEs which are located in Ankara and experienced in exporting. The data were collected by Kelly’s REP test then answers were analyzed by content analysis. Thus, the institutions behind the export barriers that enterprises are faced with were identified. Findings – The findings of the study show that all regulatory and cognitive and normative institutions are effective in the emergence of export barriers (resource barriers, knowledge and experience barriers, procedure barriers and exogenous barriers), albeit at different levels. In other words, the causes of the barriers have concrete dimensions as well as abstract dimensions such as awareness or value judgments. Discussion – The study provides a view about examining institutions as the cause of exports barriers to the literature. Results of this study reveal that i) the barriers exhibit dynamism depending on the institutions that cause them, ii) the policies aimed at eliminating the barriers should be inclusive of all regulatory and cognitive and normative institutions, iii) since it is difficult to execute generic policies to eliminate the barriers case-specific policies should be implemented.
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