TRANSFORMATION OF SCHOOL CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENTS TO HOME-BASED CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENTS DUE TO CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) PANDEMIC

Educational spaces have an impact on young children’s spatial perception since preschool and primary school have been the first public places they have known. In school buildings, physical architectural parameters such as color, lighting, acoustic, ventilation and temperature have significant effects on students’ and teachers’ behavior, well-being and attainment. With the transformation of classroom environments in today’s COVID-19 pandemic situation, physical educational environments have suddenly become to being classroom environments at home. While there are important design decisions to be taken in terms of children's concentration, productivity and well-being in educational spaces, this condition is also valid in newly created home-based classrooms in which computer screen has a leading role. The aim of this study is to provide information on how these home-based educational environments should be created with regards to physical architectural and design parameters in the light of empirical and theoretical evidence. In order to achieve this aim, this study presents a model for creating home-based educational environments.

KORONAVİRÜS (COVİD-19) SALGINI NEDENİYLE OKUL SINIFI ORTAMLARININ EV TABANLI SINIF ORTAMLARINA DÖNÜŞÜMÜ

Özellikle küçük çocuklar için eğitim alanları, okul öncesi ve ilkokulun en küçük çocuklar için kullandıkları ve anında tanıdıkları ilk halka açık yerler olduğu için mekânsal algılarında en büyük etkiye sahip mekânlardır. Okul binalarında renk, aydınlatma, akustik, havalandırma ve sıcaklık gibi fiziksel mimari parametreler, öğrenci ve öğretmenlerin davranışları, refahları ve kazanımları üzerinde önemli etkilere sahiptir. Günümüz COVID-19 salgın koşullarında sınıf ortamlarının bilgisayar ekranlarına dönüşmesi ile fiziksel eğitim ortamları aniden bilgisayar ekranlarına taşınmış ve eğitim alanlarındaki sınıf ortamları, evin herhangi bir alanına taşınmıştır. Yani, uzaktan eğitim süreci ile öğrencilerin eğitim ortamı değişim yaşamıştır. Eğitim mekânlarında çocukların konsantrasyonu, üretkenliği ve refahı açısından alınması gereken önemli tasarım kararları varken, bu durum bilgisayar ekranının başrol oynadığı evde yeni oluşturulan sınıflarda da geçerlidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, bu ev eğitim ortamlarının fiziksel mimari ve tasarım parametreleri açısından ampirik ve teorik kanıtlar ışığında nasıl yaratılması gerektiğine dair bilgi sağlamaktır. Bu amaca ulaşmak için bu araştırmanın temel yöntemi evde oluşturulabilecek eğitim ortamları için bir model sunmaktır.

___

Aquilar, J. R. (2019). A Review of Acoustic Design Criteria for School Infrastructure in Chile. Revista Ingenieria de Construction RIC, 34(2), 115-123. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-50732019000200115

Astolfi, A., D’Orazio, D., & Garai, M. (2017). The Role of Acoustic Standards in the Improvement of Educational Spaces in Italy. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 141(5), 3687. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4988021

Atabay, S. (2014). Mekan ve Mimarinin Eğitimde Başarıya Etkisi. Vitra Çağdaş Mimarlık Dizisi: Eğitim Yapıları. Retrieved from https://tedmem.org/mem-notlari/gorus/mekan-ve-mimarinin-egitimde-basariya-etkisi

Awbi, H. B. (2003). Ventilation of Buildings. London: Spon Press.

Bakó-Biró, Zs., Clements-Croome, D. J., Kochhar, N., Awbi, H. B., & Williams, M. J. (2012). Ventilation Rates in Schools and Pupils’ Performance. Building and Environment, 48, 215-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.08.018

Basham, P., Merrifield, J., & Hepburn, C. R. (2007). Homeschooling from the Extreme to Mainstream. Canada: The Fraser Institute. Retrieved from https://www.fraserinstitute.org/sites/default/files/Homeschooling2007.pdf.

Bellia, L., Pedace, A., & Barbato, G. (2013). Lighting in Educational Environments: An Example of a Complete Analysis of the Effects of Daylight and Electric Light on Occupants. Building and Environment, 68, 50-65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.04.005

Bellia, L., Spada, G., Pedace, A., & Fragliasso, F. (2015). Methods to Evaluate Lighting Quality in Educational Environments. Energy Procedia, 78, 3138-3143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.770

Boyatzis, C. J., & Varghese, R. (1994). Children’s Emotional Associations With Colors. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155(1), 77-85, https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1994.9914760

Chakraborty, I., & Maity, P. (2020). COVID-19 Outbreak: Migration, Effects on Society, Global Environment and Prevention. Science of the Total Environment, 728, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138882

Chan, S. C., Che-Ani, A. I., & Nik Ibrahim, N. L. (2013). Passive Designs in Sustaining Natural Ventilation in School Office Buildings in Seremban, Malaysia. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 2, 172- 182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2014.01.002

Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers - CIBSE. (2004). Code for Lighting. London: CIBSE.

Chatzidiakou, L., Mumovic, D., & Summerfield, A. J. (2012). What Do We Know About Indoor Air Quality in School Classrooms? A Critical Review of the Literature. Intelligent Buildings International, 4(4), 228-259. https://doi.org/10.1080/17508975.2012.725530

Dalke, H., Little, J., Niemann, E., Camgöz, N., Steadman, G., Hill, S., & Stott, L. (2005). Color and Lighting in Hospital Design. Optics & Laser Technology, 38, 343-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2005.06.040

Dear, R. D., Kim, J., Candido, C., & Deuble, M. (2015). Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Australian School Classroom. Building Research & Information, 43(3), 383-398. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2015.991627

Engelbrecht, K. (2003). The Impact of Color on Learning. Retrieved from http://web.archieve.org/web/20040218065061

Evans, G. W., & Lepore, S. J. (1993). Nonauditory Effects of Noise on Children: A Critical Review. Children’s Environments, 10(1), 31-51. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/41515250

Evans, J. B. (2006). Acoustical Standards for Classroom Design Comparison of International Standards and Low Frequency Criteria. Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control, 25(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1260/026309206777637348

Fielding, R. (2006). Learning, Lighting and Color: Lighting Design for Schools and Universities in the 21st Century. Magazine of the ELDA and IALD. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED497664.pdf.

Fisk, W. J. (2017). The Ventilation Problem in Schools: Literature Review. Indoor Air, 27, 1039-1051. https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12403

Flourentzou, F., Pantet, S., & Ritz, K. (2017). Design and Performance of Controlled Natural Ventilation in School Gymnasiums. International Journal of Ventilation, 16(2), 112-123. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733315.2016.1220202

Gil-Baez, M., Barrios-Padura, A., Molina-Huelva, M., & Chacartegui, R. (2017). Natural Ventilation Systems in 21st Century for Near Zero Energy School Buildings. Energy, 137, 1186-1200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.05.188

Güneş, E., & Olguntürk, N. (2020). Color-Emotion Associations in Interiors. Color Research and Application, 45, 129-141. https://doi.org/10.1002/col.22443

Güzer, C. A., & Özgenel, L. (2019). Eğitim Yapılarından Öğrenmek. In S. A. Şensoy (Ed.), Eğitim Yapıları ve Tasarımı (pp.1-30). Pegem Akademi. https://doi.org/10.14527/9786050370584

Higgins, S., Hall, E., Wall, K., Woolner, P., & McCaughey, C. (2005). The Impact of School Environments: A Literature Review. Design Council.

Klatte, M., Bergström, K., & Lachmann, T. (2013). Does Noise Affect Learning? A Short Review on Noise Effects on Cognitive Performance in Children. Frontiers in Psychology-Developmental Psychology, 4, 1-6, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00578

Kleiven, T. (2003). Natural Ventilation in Buildings: Architectural Concepts, Consequences and Possibilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Norwegian University. Retrieved from https://ntnuopen.ntnu.no/ntnuxmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/231090/126224_FULLTEXT01.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Maxwell, L. E. (2016). School Building Condition, Social Climate, Student Attendance and Academic Achievement: A Mediation Model. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 46, 206-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.04.009

Michael, A., & Heracleous, C. (2017). Assessment of Natural Lighting Performance and Visual Comfort of Educational Architecture in Southern Europe: The Case of Typical Educational School Premises in Cyprus. Energy and Buildings, 140, 443-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.12.087

Nelson, P. B. (2003). Sound in the Classroom: Why Children Need Quiet. ASHRAE Journal, 45(2), 22- 25.

Orr, D. W. (1992). Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World. State University of New York Press.

Read, M. A. (2003). Use of Color in Child Care Environments: Application of Color for Wayfinding and Space Definition in Alabama Child Care Environments. Early Childhood Education Journal, 30(4), 233-239. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023387607942

Shield, B. M., & Dockrell, J. E. (2003). The Effects of Noise on Children at School: A Review. Building Acoustics, 10(2), 97-116. https://doi.org/10.1260/135101003768965960

Spinelli, A., & Pellino, G. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspectives on an Unfolding Crisis. Wiley Public Health Emergency Collection. https://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11627

Şad, S. N., & Akdağ, M. (2010). Evde Eğitim. Milli Eğitim, 188, 19-31.

Thompson, S. (2003). Color in Education. School Planning and Management, 42(12), 30-32.

Wargocki, P., Porras-Salazar, J. A., & Conreras-Espinoza, S. (2019). The Relationship Between Classroom Temperature and Children’s Performance in School. Building and Environment, 157, 197-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.04.046

Wargocki, P., & Wyon, D. P. (2013). Providing Better Thermal and Air Quality Conditions in School Classrooms Would Be Cost-Effective. Building and Environment, 59, 581-589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.10.007

Wilson, R. (1997). Environmental Education: A Sense of Place. Early Childhood Education Journal, 24(3), 191- 194.

Winterbottom, M., & Wilkins, A. (2009). Lighting and Discomfort in the Classroom. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(1), 6-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.11.007

___