İRLANDA SORUNU’NUN TARİHSEL KÖKLERİ VE BREXIT SONRASI İRLANDA SORUNU: BİRLEŞİK BİR KRALLIK MI, BİRLEŞİK BİR İRLANDA MI?

İrlanda adasında biri bağımsız, diğeri Birleşik Krallık’a bağlı iki ayrı İrlanda ülkesi bulunur. Bu iki ülke yaklaşık yarım yüzyıldır Avrupa Birliği (AB) üyeliğinin sağladığı entegrasyon olanakları ölçüsünde bütünleşmiştir. Bununla birlikte, Birleşik Krallık’ta Haziran 2016’da gerçekleştirilen Brexit referandumu sonrası AB’den ayrılma kararı alınmıştır. Brexit referandumu, Birleşik Krallık’a bağlı Kuzey İrlanda’da ise AB içerisinde kalma, dolayısıyla İrlanda Cumhuriyeti ile Birlik dâhilindeki entegrasyon statüsünü devam ettirme iradesini yansıtan bir sonuç ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bu sonuç, uzun zamandır AB çatısı altında bir arada olan Britanya ülkeleri için yeni bir dönemin başlangıcı olmuştur. Referandum sonucunda, Kuzey İrlanda’ya benzer şekilde İskoç halkının da AB’de kalma yönündeki kararlı iradesi, Birleşik Krallık genelinde az bir farkla ortaya çıkan ayrılık kararı ile çelişen bir eğilim arz etmiştir. Böylelikle bu iki ülkede öteden beridir süregelen bağımsızlık tartışmalarını yeniden gündeme gelmiştir. Brexit referandumunun İngiliz hegemonyasını yansıtan merkeziyetçi bir eğilim ve empoze edici bir propaganda süreci ile gerçekleştirilmiş olması, bu tartışmaları alevlendiren bir unsur olmuştur. Kuzey İrlanda özelinde bu süreç, AB’de kalma yönündeki iradenin itici gücünden de destek alarak, İrlanda adasındaki tarihsel bölünmüşlüğe son verecek olan İrlanda Cumhuriyeti ile birleşme seçeneğini hiç olmadığı kadar olanaklı ve öngörülür bir hale getirmiştir. Bununla birlikte bu seçeneği, Birleşik Krallık’taki müesses yapıdan ve çok katmanlı siyasi dinamiklerden bağımsız ele almak olası değildir. İrlanda sorununun tarihsel arka planı ve Brexit sonrası sürecin doğurduğu yeni koşullar dikkate alınarak bu çalışmada, iki İrlanda’nın birleşme olasılığı; gerek Birleşik Krallık’ın geleceği, gerekse AB düzeyinden bu olasılığa etki eden dinamikler bağlamında tartışılmaktadır.

ROOTS OF THE IRISH QUESTION AND THE IRISH QUESTION AFTER BREXIT: A UNITED KINGDOM OR A UNITED IRELAND?

There are two Irish countries on the Island of Ireland, one is independent and the other is dependent on the United Kingdom (UK). These two countries have been integrated for half a century to the extent permitted by the integration opportunities provided by the European Union (EU) membership. However, after the Brexit referendum held in June 2016, the UK has finally decided to withdraw from the EU. The Brexit referendum has produced a result that reflects the will to remain within the EU for Northern Ireland, which is affiliated to the United Kingdom, and therefore to maintain the status of integration within the Union with the Republic of Ireland. This result was the beginning of a new era for the British countries, which have been together under the roof of the EU for a long time. As a result of the referendum, as the Scottish people’s decisive will to remain in the EU rather like the Northern Ireland, displayed a trend that contradicts the withdrawal decision that emerged with a slight difference across the UK. Thus, the longstanding independence debates in these two countries came to the fore again. The fact that the Brexit referendum was carried out with a centralist tendency and an imposing propaganda process reflecting the British hegemony has been a factor that fueled these discussions. In the case of Northern Ireland, this process is also supported by the driving force of the will to remain in the EU and makes the option of uniting with the Republic of Ireland that would put an end to the historical division in the Island of Ireland, more possible and predictable than ever before. However, it is not possible to consider this option independently of the establishment and multi layered political dynamics in the UK. Taking the historical background of the Irish Question and the new conditions created by the post-Brexit process into account, the possibility for the unification of the two Ireland is discussed in this study, within the context of both the future of the UK and the dynamics affecting this possibility through the EU level.

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