TARİHİ, TEMELLERİ VE YAPISIYLA YENİ ZELANDA ERKEN ÇOCUKLUK EĞİTİM PROGRAMI: TE WHÀRİKİ

Dünyadaki erken çocukluk eğitimi programları arasında yer alan ve Màori dilinde “dokuma halı” anlamına gelen “Te Whàriki” programı, Yeni Zelenda’nın ulusal eğitim programıdır. Programdaki “Dokuma halı” felsefesi, özgün niteliği ve benimsediği farklı kültürlerin birliği anlayışıyla, erken çocukluk eğitimine farklı bir bakış açısı getirmiştir Çocuğun öğrenme deneyimleri, içinde bulunduğu toplumdan ve toplumsal yapıyı şekillendiren kültürel anlayıştan bağımsız değildir. Bu görüşü temel alan Te Whàriki Programı’nda çocuğun eğitiminde ve çok yönlü gelişiminde kültür ve toplum; programın temel yapısı ve sahip olduğu anlayışı şekillendiren mihenk taşı olarak kabul edilmiştir. Te Whàriki programı hakkında, ülkemizde yapılmış birkaç çalışma olmakla birlikte çok fazla tanınmayan bir programdır. Bu nedenle yapılan çalışmada, Te Whàriki Programı’nın benimsediği eğitim anlayışının geniş bir kapsam çerçevesinde değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Derleme makalesi olarak hazırlanan çalışmada Te Whàriki Programı’nın tarihi, felsefesi, eğitim programı, öğrenme ortamı, çocuk, öğretmen ve aile rolleri, programın güçlü ve zayıf yönleri ve program hakkındaki eleştiriler ile ilgili detaylı bilgiler çalışmanın kapsamını oluşturan öğelerdendir. Bu bağlamda Te Whàriki Programı’nın çocuğun eğitimine farklı bir bakış açısı getirmesi yanı sıra kültürel değerler, çevre ve toplum etkileşimli bir program olarak ülkemizde yapılan erken çocukluk eğitimi hizmetleri ile program çalışmalarına örnek oluşturarak katkı sunacağı düşünülmektedir.

THE HISTORY, FOUNDATIONS and STRUCTURE of NEW ZEALAND’S EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAM: TE WHÀRIKI

The “Te Whàriki” program, which is among the early childhood education programs in the world and means “woven carpet” in Màori language, is the national education program of New Zealand. The analogy “woven carpet” has brought a different perspective to early childhood education program with its unique quality and understanding of the unity of different cultures. Children's learning experiences are not independent of the society they live in and the cultural understanding that shapes the social structure. Although there are a few studies about the Te Whàriki program in our country, it is a program that is not very well known. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the educational approach adopted by the Te Whàriki Program within a wide scope. In this review article, detailed information about the history, philosophy, education program, learning environment, child, teacher and family roles, strengths and weaknesses of the program and criticisms about the program are among the elements that make up the scope of the study. In this context, it is thought that the Te Whàriki Program will not only bring a different perspective to the education of the child, but also contribute to the early childhood education services and program studies in our country as an interactive program with cultural values, environment and society

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