Gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde dışa açıklık, demokrasi ve gelir dağılımı ilişkisi

Gelir dağılımı adaletsizliği gelişmişlik düzeyine bakılmaksızın bütün ülkeleri ilgilendiren temel bir sorundur. Bu nedenle gelir dağılımı ve adaleti uzun zamandan beri tüm dünyada araştırmacıların, politika uygulayıcılarının ve bireylerin ilgisini çekmektedir. Bu çalışmada gelir dağılımı adaletsizliğinin temel belirleyicileri 63 ge- lişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülke örneği için analiz edilmiştir. Panel veri analiz yönteminin kullanıldığı çalışmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre, ülkelerin dışa açıklık düzeylerinin gelir dağılımı üzerindeki etkisi negatif iken, doğrudan yabancı sermaye yatırımlarının gelir dağılımı üzerindeki etkisi gerek gelişmiş gerekse gelişmekte olan ülkelerde pozitif olarak tespit edilmiştir. Diğer yandan demokrasi seviyesindeki artış gelişmiş ülkelerde gelir dağılımı adaletsizliğini azaltıcı rol oynarken, gelişmekte olan ülkelerde gelir dağılımındaki adaletsizliği artırmaktadır. Benzer şekilde eğitim seviyesindeki artış gelişmiş ülkelerde gelir dağılımındaki adaletsizliği azaltırken gelişmekte olan ülkelerde eğitimin gelir dağılımı üzerinde bir etkisi tespit edilememiştir.

The relationship between openness, democracy and ıncome distribution in developed and developing countries

Income inequality is a basic problem concerning all countries regardless of their level of development. Therefore, distribution of income and its equity have been attracting researchers and politicians’ attention around the world for a long time. In this study, main determinants of income inequality have been analyzed for 63 developed and developing countries. According to findings provided by using of panel data analysis, while trade openness has negative effect on distribution of income, it has been found that the effects of foreign direct investment on distribution of income is positive for both developed and developing countries. Furthermore, while the rise in the level of democracy reduces income inequality in developed countries; it raises the income inequality in developing countries. Similarly, the rise in the education level reduces inequality in the distribution of income in developed countries, whereas level of education does not have significant effects on income inequality in developing countries.

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Kaynak Göster