Investigation of Biodegradable Films Produced from Three Different Protein Sources for White Cheese Packaging

Biodegradable films and coatings; attract an increasing interest recently being natural and environmentally friendly alternatives to synthetic food packaging materials. Some terms such as "renewable, food preservative, thin layers, food life extender" might be used for defining these materials. Proteins have a high potential to be used in food packaging. This study aimed to compare the performances of three different protein sources (whey protein, soy protein and gluten) as biodegradable coatings for cheese samples. Effect of red grape juice addition into coating solutions was also investigated. In this study, 15 g coating solution is used to coat 3-3.5 g cheese slice in each treatment. The results of the study revealed that the coatings produced were elastic, adhesive, transparent and durable.  Among the different coatings, gluten had a more stretch and adhesive structure. Soy protein and whey protein coatings inhibited the moisture loss in cheese samples slightly more than gluten films. Grape juice addition to soy and whey protein coatings made the cheese samples more resistant to microbial growth.  The whey protein coating was the thickest among them. The results depicted that, whey protein coating with grape juice is the most promising application, by providing lower microbiological load and moisture loss in cheese samples, and depicting lower color and moderate solubility. In future studies, combined usage of fruit sources with protein coatings might be helpful to improve the cheese quality in biodegradable packages.

Üç farklı protein kaynağından beyaz peynir ambalajı olarak üretilen biyobozunur kaplamaların incelenmesi

Biyobozunur filmler ve kaplamalar sentetik gıda ambalaj malzemelerine alternatif, doğal ve çevre dostu malzemeler olarak son yıllarda giderek artan bir ilgi görmektedir. Bu malzemelerin tanımlanmasında “yenilenebilir, gıda koruyucu, ince tabaka, gıdanın raf ömrünü uzatıcı” gibi terimler kullanmak mümkündür. Proteinlerin gıda ambalajlamada kullanılmak üzere önemli bir potansiyele sahiptir. Bu çalışmada üç farklı protein kaynağının (peynir altı suyu proteini, soya proteini ve gluten) peynir örnekleri için biyobozunur kaplama olarak davranışlarının karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada ayrıca kaplamalara eklenen üzüm suyunun etkileri de incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmada, her bir tür protein çözeltisi (15 g), 3-3.5 g peynir diliminin kaplanmasında kullanılmıştır. Çalışma tüm kaplamaların esnek, yapışkan, transparan ve dayanıklı olduklarını göstermiştir. Farklı kaplamalar arasında, glutenin daha esnek ve daha yapışkan bir yapıya sahip olduğu gözlenmiştir. Soya proteini ve peynir altı suyu proteini içeren kaplamalar peynir örneklerindeki nem kaybını gluten kaplamalara göre biraz daha fazla engelleyebilmişlerdir. Kaplama çözeltilerine üzüm suyu eklenmesi peynir örneklerini mikrobiyal gelişmeye karşı daha dayanıklı hale getirmiştir. Bütün materyaller arasında peynir altı suyu proteini içeren kaplamalaren kalın olanlardır Çalışmada elde edilen sonuçlara göre,  üzüm suyu eklenen peynir altı suyu proteini kaplamaları, peynir örneklerinde daha düşük mikrobiyal yük ve nem kaybı sağlamaları, daha az renklilik ve kabul edilebilir düzeydeki çözünürlük düzeyleri ile en öne çıkan uygulama olmuştur. Gelecekte yapılacak çalışmalarda, meyve kaynaklarının protein kaplamalar ile birlikte kullanımının biyobozunur ambalaja sahip peynirlerin kalitesinin geliştirilmesinde daha faydalı olacağı düşünülmektedir.  

___

Akbari, Z., Ghomashchi, T., Moghadam, S., 2007. Improvement in food packaging industry with biobased nanocomposites. International Journal of Food Engineering, 3 (4): 1-24.

Akcan, T., Estevez, M., Serdaroglu, M., 2017. Antioxidant protection of cooked meatballs during frozen storage by whey protein edible films with phytochemicals from Laurus nobilis L and Salvia officinalis. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 77: 323-331.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2002. Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Virginia, USA.

Barbut, S., Foegeding, E.A., 1993. Ca2+- induced gelation of pre-heated whey protein isolate. Journal of Food Science, 58 (4): 867-8.

Bryant, C.M., McClements D.J., 1998. Molecular bases of protein functionality with special consideration of cold-set gels derived from heat-denatured whey. Trends Food Science and Technology, 9 (4): 143-151.

Cagrı, A., Ustunol, Z., Ryster, E.T., 2001. Antimicrobial, mechanical and moisture barrier properties of low whey protein-based edible films containing aminobenzoic or sorbic acids. Journal of Food Science, 66 (6): 865-870.

De Lima Marques, J., Funck, G.D., Da Silva Dannenberg, G., Dos Santos Cruxen, C. E., El Halal, S.L.M., Dias, A.R.G., 2017. Bacteriocin-like substances of Lactobacillus curvatus P99: characterization and application in biodegradable films for control of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese. Food Microbiology, 63: 159-163.

Evlice, A.K., Özkaya, H., 2011. Makarnalık buğdayda farklı cihazlarla saptanan renk değerinin kalite yönünden değerlendirilmesi. Tarla Bitkileri Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü Dergisi, 20 (2): 33-40.

Galus, S., Kadzińska, J., 2016. Whey protein edible films modified with almond and walnut oils. Food Hydrocolloids, 52: 78-86.

Gontard, N., Guilbert, S., Cuq, J.L., 1993. Water and glycerol as plasticizers affect mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of an edible wheat gluten film. Journal of Food Science, 58: 201-211.

Gontard, N., Guillaume, C., 2010. Packaging and the shelf life of fruits and vegetables, p. 297–315. In: G.L. Robertson (ed.), Food Packaging and Shelf Life. A Practical Guide. CRC Press, Roca Baton, Florida.

Gounga, M.E., Xu, S.Y., Wang, Z., 2007. Whey protein isolate-based edible films as affected by protein concentration, glycerol ratio and pullulan addition in film formation. Journal of Food Engineering, 83: 521–530.

Guilbert, S., 1986. Food packaging and preservation, p.371-394. In: Theory and Practice in Technology and Application of Edible Protective Films. Elsevier Applied Science Publishing Co., London, England.

Gurdian, C., Chouljenko, A., Solval, K.M., Boeneke, C., King, J. M., Sathivel, S., 2017. Application of edible films containing oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil on Queso Blanco cheese prepared with flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil. Journal of Food Science, 82 (6): 1395-1401.

Gutierrez, J., Barry-Ryan, C., Bourke, P., 2009. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils using food model media: efficacy, synergistic potential and interactions with food components. Food Microbiology, 26 (2): 142-150.

Abu Hafsa, S.H., Ibrahim, S.A., 2018. Effect of dietary polyphenol‐rich grape seed on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and ileal microflora in broiler chicks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 102 (1): 268-275.

Hashemi, S.M.B., Zahabi, N., Rezaee, Z., Maherani, Z., Boghori, P., Keshavarz, Z., 2016. Evaluation of a starch‐based edible film as carrier of Adiantum capillus‐veneris extract to improve the shelf life of fresh‐cut pears. Journal of Food Safety, 36 (3): 291-298.

Hoque, M.S., Benjakul, S. and Prodpran, T., 2011. Properties of film from cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin incorporated with cinnamon, clove and star anise extracts. Food Hydrocolloids, 25 (5): 1085-1097.

ISO 7954, 1988. General Guidance for Enumeration of Yeasts and Moulds. Colony Count Technique at 25 ◦C. International Standards Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Karagul-Yuceer, Y., Isleten, M., Uysal‐Pala, C. 2007. Sensory characteristics of Ezine cheese. Journal of Sensory Studies, 22 (1): 49-65.

Kaya, S. and Kaya, A., 2000. Microwave drying effects on properties of whey protein isolate edible films. Journal of Food Engineering, 43 (2): 91-96.

Kayserilioğlu, B.Ş., Bakır, U., Yılmaz, L., Akkaş, N., 2003. Drying temperature and relative humidity effects on wheat gluten film properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51: 964-968.

Khanzadi, M., Jafari, S.M., Mirzaei, H., Chegini, F.K., Maghsoudlou, Y., Dehnad, D., 2015. Physical and mechanical properties in biodegradable films of whey protein concentrate–pullulan by application of beeswax. Carbohydrate Polymers, 118: 24-29.

Khwaldia, K., Perez, C., Banon, S., Desobry, S., Hardy, J., 2004. Milk proteins for edible films and coatings. Food Science and Nutrition, 44: 239–251.

Kinsella, J.E., Whitehead, D.M., 1989. Proteins in whey: Chemical, physical and functional properties. Advanced Food and Nutrition, 33: 343-348.

Kunte, L.A., Gennadios, A., Cuppett, S.L., Hanna, M.A., Weller, C.L., 1997. Cast films from soy protein isolates and fractions. American Association of Cereal Chemists, 74 (2): 115-118.

Liu, K., 2004. Soybean as functional foods and ingredients, AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois.

Marquez, G.R., Di Pierro, P., Mariniello, L., Esposito, M., Giosafatto, C.V., Porta, R., 2017. Fresh-cut fruit and vegetable coatings by transglutaminase-crosslinked whey protein/pectin edible films. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 75: 124-130.

Mariniello, L., Pierro, P., Esposito, C., Sorrentino, A., Masi, P., Porta, R., 2003. Preparation and mechanical properties of edible pectin-soy flour films obtained in the absence or presence of transglutaminase. Journal of Biotechnology, 102: 191-198.

McHugh, T.H., Aujard, J.F., Krochta J.M., 1994. Plasticized whey protein edible films: water vapor permeability properties. Journal of Food Science, 59: 416-419.

Mulvihill, D.M., Ennis, M.P. 2003. Functional milk proteins: production and utilisation. p. 1176-1228. In: P.F. Fox and P.L.H. McSweeney, (eds.), Advanced Dairy Chemistry, vol. 1, Part B. Springer, Boston, Massachusetts.

Nie, X., Gong, Y., Wang, N. and Meng, X., 2015. Preparation and characterization of edible myofibrillar protein-based film incorporated with grape seed procyanidins and green tea polyphenol. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 64 (2): 1042-1046.

Öner, T., (2006). Soya Sektör Raporu. İstatistik Şubesi. s. 9-10.

Ozdemir, M., Floros, J.D., 2008. Optimization of edible whey protein films containing preservatives for mechanical and optical properties. Journal of Food Engineering, 84 (1): 116-123.

Pochat-Bohatier, C., Sanchez, J., Gontard, N., 2005. Influence of relative humidity on carbon dioxide sorption in wheat gluten films. Journal of Food Engineering, 77: 983–991.

Perez-Gago, M.B., Nadaud, P., Krochta, J.M., 1999. Water vapor permeability, solubility, and tensile properties of heat-denatured versus native whey protein films. Journal of Food Science, 64 (6): 1034-1037.

Ramos, Ó.L., Reinas, I., Silva, S.I., Fernandes, J.C., Cerqueira, M.A., Pereira, R.N., Vicente, A.A., Pocas, M.F., Pintado, M.E., Malcata, F.X., 2013. Effect of whey protein purity and glycerol content upon physical properties of edible films manufactured therefrom. Food Hydrocolloids, 30 (1): 110-122.

Rhim, J.W., 2004. Increase in water vapor barrier properties of biopolymer-based edible films and coatings by compositing lipid materials. Food Science and Biotechnology, 13: 528-535.

Riaz, M.N., 2001. Uses and benefits of soy fiber. Cereal Foods World, 46: 98-100.Sarıoğlu, T., Öner, Z., 2006. Yenilebilir filmin kaşar peynir kaplanmasında kullanılma olanakları ve peynir kalitesi üzerine etkileri. Gıda, 31 (1): 3-10.

Shah, M. A., Bosco, S.J.D., Mir, S.A., 2014. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products. Meat Science, 98 (1): 21–33.

Tacer-Caba, Z., Nilufer-Erdil, D., Boyacioglu, M.H., Ng, P.K.W., 2016. Effect of wheat protein isolate addition on the quality of grape powder added wheat flour extrudates. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 8 (2): 215-230.

Tanada-Palmu, P.S. and Grosso, C.R., 2005. Effect of edible wheat gluten-based films and coatings on refrigerated strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) quality. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 36 (2): 199-208.

Temiz, H. and Yeşilsu, A.F., 2006. Bitkisel protein kaynaklı yenilebilir film ve kaplamalar. Gıda Teknolojisi Dergisi, 2: 41-50.

Varzokas, T., Tzia, V., 2016. Handbook of Food Processing: Food Preservation. CRC Press, New York.

Yoshida, C.M.P. and Antunes, A.J., 2004. Characterization of whey protein emulsion films. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 21 (2): 247-252.

___

APA Tacer Caba, Z. & Kaya Özkök, G. (2019). Investigation of Biodegradable Films Produced from Three Different Protein Sources for White Cheese Packaging . Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi , 23 (1) , 1-12 . DOI: 10.29050/harranziraat.408889
Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 4 Sayı
  • Yayıncı: Harran Üniversitesi

6.6b279