TİLBAŞAR ORTA TUNÇ ÇAĞI MEZARI IŞIĞINDA PİŞMİŞ TOPRAK ÇIPLAK KADIN FİGÜRİNLERİ İLE İLGİLİ BAZI DÜŞÜNCELER

Gaziantep ilinin yaklaşık 32 km güneydoğusunda yer alan Tilbaşar, Fırat Nehri’nin batı kollarından biri olan Sacır Suyu’nun suladığı Oğuzeli (Tilbaşar) Ovası’na hâkim bir konumda bulunan önemli Tunç Çağı kentlerinden biridir. 1994-2006 yılları arasında yürütülen yüzey araştırması ve kazı çalışmalarından sonra duran kazılar, 2015 yılında, Sacır Suyu üzerine inşa edilen Doğanpınar Barajı Projesi kapsamında tekrar başlatılmıştır. Tilbaşar’ın baraj suyundan etkilenecek olan Güney Aşağı Şehri’nde, 2017 yılında yapılan kurtarma kazıları sırasında açığa çıkartılan Orta Tunç Çağı basit toprak mezarı, buluntuları bakımından dikkat çekicidir. Mezar 10-11 yaşlarında bir çocuğa aittir. Çocuğun sağ göğsü üstünde bir adet siyah perdahlı şişe, sağ kolu etrafında deniz kabuğundan kolye taneleri, her iki omzu üstünde - ikisi sağlam, ikisi kırık - dört adet tunç iğne, sol kulağının altında iki tunç küpe ve boynunda çeşitli boyut ve şekillerde cam hamurundan boncuk tanelerinin arasında, bu çalışmanın konusunu oluşturan üç adet pişmiş topraktan figürin bulunmuştur. Kolyenin bir parçası olan figürinler yassı formlu, kolları yana açık ve ayakta duran çıplak kadınları temsil eder. Bunlar, Leila Badre’nin “Klasik Orontes Tipi (MAI 2)” olarak tanımladığı ve Nicolò Marchetti’nin Orta Tunç Çağı IIB ve Geç Tunç Çağı IA’ya tarihlediği figürinlerdendir. Kuzeybatı Suriye’de Orta Tunç Çağı’nın ayırt edici buluntuları arasında yer alan pişmiş toprak çıplak kadın figürinleri, kronolojik ve tipolojik gelişimi iyi tanımlanan söz konusu bölgenin Eski Suriye Dönemi görsel sanatının önemli temsilcilerindendir. Bu çalışma, Orta Tunç Çağı’nın pişmiş toprak çıplak kadın figürinlerinin ne şekilde kullanıldığı ile ilgili yeni bir öneri getirmektedir.

SOME REMARKS ABOUT THE CLAY NUDE FEMALE FIGURINES IN THE LIGHT OF A MIDDLE BRONZE AGE BURIAL AT TILBESHAR

Tilbeshar, an ancient mound located ca. 32 km southeast of Gaziantep, was a major Bronze Age town dominating the Oğuzeli (Tilbeshar) Plain of the Sacır Su, one of the western branches of the Euphrates River. A decade after the previous program of surveys and excavations at the site (1994-2006), a new project was launched in 2015 in connection with the Doğanpınar Dam construction on the Sacır Su. Rescue excavations in the South Lower City, due to be submerged by the dam, in 2017 uncovered a Middle Bronze pit burial whose grave goods are remarkable. The grave contained a 10-or 11- year-old child. Its gifts included a black-polished bottle on the right side of the chest; a string of shell beads around the right arm; four bronze pins (two broken, two intact) at the shoulders; two bronze earrings under the left ear; and a necklace of frit beads in various shapes on which were strung three terracotta figurines, the subject of this paper. The necklace’s figurines represent nude women, flat in shape and standing upright with arms open to the sides. They belong to Leila Badre’s “Classic Orontes Type (MAI 2)”, and are dated Middle Bronze IIB and Late Bronze IA by Nicolò Marchetti. Among the artifacts characterizing Middle Bronze northwestern Syria, nude female terracotta figurines are significant examples of Old Syrian visual art, and their chronological and typological developments are well defined. The innovative contribution of this paper instead concerns the way in which these figurines were used, as conclusively illustrated by the child’s burial at Tilbeshar

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