Gig Ekonomisinde İstihdam ve Endüstri İlişkileri: İstihdam Statüsünden Kaynaklanan Zorluklar

Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin yaygınlaşması ile platformlar üzerinden şahsen veya sanal olarak bir defaya mahsus yapılan görevler veya işlerden oluşan yeni bir piyasa gelişmektedir. Görevlerin arz ve talebini eşleştiren bu yeni piyasa, gig ekonomisi olarak tanımlanmakta ve gig ekonomisinde platform ve çalışan sayısı giderek artmaktadır. Gig ekonomisi birçok kişiye esnek çalışma ve ek kazanç fırsatları sunmasına rağmen, istihdam korumalarının yanı sıra, örgütlenme ve toplu pazarlık hakkının kullanımında yaşanan zorluklar ve kısıtlamalarla gündeme gelmektedir. Bu açıdan, gig-tabanlı çalışanlar platformlar tarafından özel sözleşmelerde çoğunlukla bağımsız yüklenici veya serbest çalışan olarak sınıflandırılmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, bu çalışma, temel olarak, gig ekonomisinin ayırt edici özellikleri, gig-tabanlı çalışma koşulları ve modelleri ile istihdam statüsünden kaynaklanan istihdamın korunması, örgütlenme ve toplu pazarlık açısından yaşanan zorluklara ilişkin ülke örnekleri ile yapılandırılmış kavramsal-teorik bir inceleme sunmayı ve bir takım sosyal politikalar önermeyi amaçlamaktadır.

Employment and Industrial Relations in the Gig Economy: Challenges Resulted from the Employment Status

A new market consisting of one-off tasks or jobs performed personally or virtually through platforms is developing based on the widespread usage of information and communication technologies. The new market which matches the supply and demand of those tasks is described as the gig economy and the number of platforms and workers in the gig economy gradually increases. Although the gig economy offers opportunities for many people to get flexible work and additional earnings, it remains on the agenda the restrictions and challenges experienced in the usage of employment protections and rights to organise and collective bargaining. In this sense, gig-based workers are often classified as independent contractors or self-employed or freelancers in private contracts by the platforms running in the gig economy. In this context, this study mainly aims to present a conceptual-theoretical review structured with country instances related to the distinctive features of the gig economy, gig-based working conditions and models, and challenges experienced in terms of employment protections, organisation, and collective bargaining which result from employment statu and suggest a range of social policies

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