MÜZİK PERFORMANSININ ALT BECERİ ALANLARINA İLİŞKİN MÜZİSYENLERİN ALGILARI
Bu araştırmanın amacı müzik performansının alt beceri alanlarına ilişkin profesyonel müzik eğitimi almış ve almakta olan müzisyenlerin algılarını ortaya çıkarmaktır. Durum tespitine yönelik bu çalışmada nitel araştırma yaklaşımlarından fenomenoloji kullanılmıştır. İlgili literatür doğrultusunda müzikal beceriler, teknik- çalgısal beceriler, çalışmaöğrenme becerileri, sunum- sahne becerileri ve performansla ilgili olarak yaşam becerileri başlıkları oluşturulmuştur. Her bir başlıkla ilgili olarak müzisyenlerin görüşlerini almak üzere açık uçlu sorulardan oluşan elektronik bir form hazırlanmıştır. Müzisyenlerden ilgili başlıklar altında yer aldıklarını düşündükleri beceri, davranış, durum ve etkinlikleri sıralamaları istenmiştir. Müzisyenlerin vermiş oldukları yanıtlar Maxquda 10 nitel analiz programı kullanılarak içerik analizi yapılmış ve temalar oluşturulmuştur. Temaların geçerlik güvenirlik çalışması için veri seti iki alan uzmanı ile paylaşılarak kodlama ve temalar gözden geçirilmiştir. Uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda analiz son haline getirilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda müziksel beceriler, temel ve üst düzey beceriler olarak sınıflandırılmıştır. Teknik- çalgısal becerilerde çalgıya özgü teknikler, bedensel beceriler, hız, entonasyon, kuramsal bilgi, müzikalite, egzersizler ve çalgı bakım becerileri kategorileri ortaya çıkmıştır. Toplu çalma becerileri, grup dinamiğini etkileyen unsurlar, bireysel beceriler ve müziksel beceriler başlıkları altında incelenmiştir. Çalışma- öğrenme becerilerinde stratejiler ve pratik çözümler olarak genel iki kategori ortaya çıkmıştır. Sunum- sahne becerileri sunum öncesi ve sunum sırası beceriler olmak üzere iki genel başlıkta incelenmiştir. Performansla ilgili yaşam becerilerinde de deneyim, çalışma, sağlık ve organizasyon becerileri ortaya çıkmıştır. Performansın alt beceri alanlarına ilişkin literatürde farklı amaçlarla oluşturulmuş çeşitli sınıflamalar bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmada ortaya çıkan kategorilerin önceki araştırmalarla büyük ölçüde örtüştüğü söylenebilir. Literatüre ek olarak müzisyenler müzikalite ve yorumlama kavramlarını farklı ele almışlardır. Müzisyenler çalgılarıyla ilgili temel bakım becerilerine sahip olmanın önemli olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Ayrıca, performansa ilişkin yaşam becerileri kapsamında müzisyenler bahsetmişlerdir. Zihinsel çalışmalar ve teknoloji kullanımı ile ilgili ek çalışmalar yapılmasına ihtiyaç duyulduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. literatüre ek olarak organizasyon becerilerinden
THE PERCEPTIONS OF MUSICIANS ON SUB-SKILLS OF MUSICAL PERFORMANCE
The purpose of this research is to determine the perceptions of proffessional musicians and music students on sub-skills of musical performance. Phenomenology had been used as qualitative research approaches. In the direction of the releated literature, musical skills, technical-instrumental skills, study- learning skills, presentation- stage skills and life skills releated to performance were established. An electronic form consisting of open- ended questions had been prepared to get musicians’ opinions on each title. Musicians were asked to list the skills, behaviors, situations and activities under the relevant titles. Responses given by musicians were analyzed by using the Maxquda 10 qualitative analysis program and the themes were created. For the validity and reliability study of the themes, the data set was shared with two field experts to review the codes and themes. In line with expert opinions, the analysis had been finalized. As a result of the analysis, musical skills was classified ad basic and upper level skills. In technical- instrumental skills, spesific techniques of the instrument, physical skills, speed, intonation, theoretical knowlegde, musicality, exercises and instrumental care skills had emerged. The collecitive playing skills had been examined under the heading of factors affecting group Dynamics, individual skilss and musical skills. Two general categories emerged as strategies and practical solution in study-learning skills. Presentation- stage skills were examined in two general titles, pre-presentation and presentation skills. In life skills releated to performance, experience, study, health and organizational skills had emerged. There are various classifications in the literature releated to the sub-skills of performance, which are created for different purposes. It can be said that the categories that emerged in this study supports previous research. In additions to the litarature, musicians had taken different concepts of musicality and interpretation. Musicians pointed out that it is important to have basic care skills in their instruments. In addition, as part of life skills releated to performance, musicians talked about organizational skills.It is possible to come across many researches on sub-skills of music performance from different diciplines such as musicology, psychology and educational sciences. It is observed that these studies are mostly designed to understand and measure the performance. The process of measuring and evaluating performance has caused the need to identify sub-skill areas. Rubrics and forms designed to measure and evaluate music performance at different levels for use in school or competition are included in the literature. However, a holistic approach requires to determine musicians' perceptions on sub-skills in all areas of performance. In this research, rather than measuring the performance; musical, technical, study, presentation and life skills that form and support performance is investigated. In the light of this point of view, the purpose of this research is to determine the perceptions of proffessional musicians and music students on sub-skills of musical performance. Method Phenomenology had been used as qualitative research approaches. In the direction of the releated literature, musical skills, technicalinstrumental skills, study- learning skills, presentation- stage skills and life skills releated to performance were established. An electronic form consisting of open- ended questions had been prepared to get musicians’ opinions on each title. Musicians were asked to list the skills, behaviors, situations and activities under the relevant titles. Responses given by musicians were analyzed by using the Maxquda 10 qualitative analysis program and the themes were created. For the validity and reliability study of the themes, the data set was shared with two field experts to review the codes and themes. In line with expert opinions, the analysis had been finalized. Results As a result of the analysis, performance skills was classified under the titles of musical, technique, study, presentation and life skills can be seen below. Musical Skills: The musicians participating in the research gave a wide range of answers about musical skills. Responses are grouped into basic skills and high-level skills. Basic skills have been examined in two subcategories as instrumental and musical theories. According to musicians, "Overcoming technical problems is a precondition for the realization of musical skills". Musicians have stated that skills such as posture, intonation, correct use of techniques specific to the instrument (bow, breath, touch, etc.), and the ability to play a correct tone from the instrument can be grouped under the title of musical skills. One of the sub-titles of basic skills is knowledge of music theories. According to musicians, hearing, field knowledge (music history, theories, etc.), harmonic analysis, rhythm and note reading ability constitute the infrastructure of a successful music performance. High-level skills contains three subtitles as interpratation, musiquality and improvisation. According to musicians, musicality is the correct play of the marks, such as speed, freedom, and nuance, written in the note. Musicians have used the expression "interpretation" in situations where "they do not write in the notes, but the musician has formed his or her own playing style within the framework of his musical, cultural and intellectual accumulations". Technical- Instrumental Skills: As a result of content analysis; specific techniques, physical skills, speed, intonation, theoretical knowledge, musicality, exercises and instrumental care have emerged under the title of technical- instrumental skills. Here, each subtitle examined under the technical instrumental title reflects different aspects of a holistic performance. As can be seen from the musicians' views, each sub-skill is considered to be a successor or a predecessor of each other. Technique influences and transforms musicality. As an addition to other research in the literature, musicians in this research have touched on the importance of instrumental care skills. They said that musicians need to know their instruments and know the tuning, wire changing and minor repairs. Collective Playing Skills: The collective playing skills had been examined under the heading of factors affecting group dynamics, individual skills and musical skills. Group dynamics represent the effects and reactions that occur in any part of the group, on group members, and in the structure of the group. The elements of listening, harmony, coexistence, communication and equilibrium in the analysis are considered as factors that affect both the collective playing environment and the quality of the music. Musicians have emphasized most of the integration skills from these factors. They said that a group with perfect integration should have the skills as using the same techniques in the same way, starting and ending together, breathing together, feeling the rhythm together, adapting the tempo changes together and making the nuances of the piece together. Musicians have stated that listening ability, which is defined as "multiple listening", both by themselves and by the group members making music together and observing the dynamics of music (nuance, rhythm, balance etc.) is one of the most important skills for collective playing. The musicians indicated that individual characteristics directly affect the collective play. It is emerged that the most effective individual skill is “following”. Musicians have expressed a few different types of following, including the following the maestro, other musicians and music itself. Musicians have also emphasized the importance of group consciousness, self-confidence and group trust, teamwork, duty awareness, respect, autocontrol and discipline in collective play, different from individual playing. Musicians said that musical skills also affect collective play. Musical skills have been examined in previous chapters. However, unlike the previous one, it is handled in the context of collective play. Unlike individual playing, rhythm is the most basic element that keeps the community together. Musicians have also pointed out that intonation and musicality also influence the performance of collective playing. Study- Learning Skills: Two general categories emerged as strategies and practical solutions in study-learning skills. The study learning strategies have been examined in six chapters: planning, research-problem solving, metacognition, listening, side-reading and repetition. The categories that emerged in this research are similar to the learning strategies in educational sciences. Musicians have also mentioned practical solution suggestions they use. They stated that they worked with the most faulty or harder parts separately and later combined them with other measures. In addition, they have proposed different practical solutions such as careful study, focusing, working by separating music sentences into elements, playing by changing rhythms, studying position changes separately, studying with different dynamics, discovering the most beautiful tone in a musical instrument, singing melodies as songs, and doing breathing and relaxation exercises. Presentation- Stage Skills: Presentation- stage skills were examined in two general titles, pre-presentation and presentation skills. According to the musicians, the more efficient the preparation process is, the more successful the concert will be. Musicians were generally focused on the skills involved in the presentation as part of their presentation skills. The province of these skills was expressed in the title of stage psychology. According to musicians, displaying art in front of the community requires psychological stability and self-control in every aspect. The most important elements to check are excitement, stress and anxiety. The control of stage excitement is possible by focusing on self-confidence and music itself. The stage image was also expressed as one of the important skills during the presentation. Musicians have stated in the context of the stage image that knowing how to act on stage, using and filling stage, body language, gestures and mimics, clothing, makeup and aesthetic skills. Life Skills: In life skills releated to performance, experience, study, health and organizational skills had emerged. Musicians have also stated that their daily life experiences also affect the art life, and at the same time their musical experiences affect their daily lives. According the musicians, there is a need for a correct life plan to sustain and develop musicianship skills. Having a regular and dynamic work program, planning the content of the work correctly is the key to this development. Playing musical instruments is also a bodily activity. Accroding to musicians it requires to operate different muscle groups which don’t used in daily life. For this reason a musician should do regular sports such as pilates and swimming in his daily life. The greatest contribution of this research to the literature is the opinions of musicians on organizational skills. Being able to stage and provide income from various venues, evaluating emerging professional opportunities (weighing and directing proposals), knowing the listener expectations, creating opportunities (finding money, sponsoring, producing projects that attract sponsors and listeners), putting up the price, negotiating when necessary, consistent and proper working with people, to establish good connections and being ethical are the skills under the organisational skills. Conclusion There are various classifications in the literature releated to the sub-skills of performance, which are created for different purposes. It can be said that the categories that emerged in this study supports previous research. In additions to the litarature, musicians had taken different concepts of musicality and interpretation. Musicians pointed out that it is important to have basic care skills in their instruments. In addition, as part of life skills releated to performance, musicians pointed out the importance of organizational skills.
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