İşyerinde kullanılan politik taktiklere yönelik olası bireysel önceller üzerine bir araştırma

Bu araştırma kapsamında; çoğunluğu uzman seviyesinde olan ve ağırlıklı olarak finans, bilgi teknolojileri, eğitim ve danışmanlık gibi hizmet sektörlerinde çalışan toplam 130 katılımcıdan toplanan veriler neticesinde; çalışanların kariyer hedefleri ile uyguladıkları politik taktikler arasındaki ilişki incelenmiştir. Bu ilişki incelenirken çalışanın örgütüyle ilgili güç aralığı algısı ve belirsizlikten kaçınması da dikkate alınmıştır. Yapılan analizler neticesinde bazı kariyer hedefleri ve politik taktikler arasında ilişkiler bulunmuştur. Statü ve etkinlik kazanma hedefinin göze girme, mantık ve açıklıkla ikna taktiklerini etkileyebileceği gözlemlenmiştir. Çalışanın algıladığı güç aralığının da statü ve etkinlik kazanma hedefi ile etkileşime girerek göze girme taktiğinin uygulanmasını arttırabileceği ve özerklik geliştirme hedefi ile etkileşime girerek göze girme taktiğini azaltabileceği bulunmuştur. Türkiye'den bir örneklemle yapılan bu çalışmadaki bulgular kariyer hedefleri ve politik davranış literatürüne algılanan güç aralığının etkisini de dâhil ederek bir katkıda bulunmuştur.

A study on probable individual antecedents of workplace political tactics

In this study, the relationship between career objects of employees and their use of political tactics was analyzed with the participation of 130 employees, predominantly working in Istanbul, Turkey, in various sectors such as Finance, Information Technologies, Education and Consultancy. In addition, the role of power distance perceptions of employees about the organizations they work for and the uncertainty avoidance of the employees were investigated as moderators. Significant correlations were found between employees' career objects and political tactics they use to influence their managers. Status and effectiveness gaining as a career object was found to be affecting the use of ingratiation, persuasion through rationalization and, assertiveness tactics. Perceived power distance was found to be moderating the relationship between status and effectiveness gaining object and ingratiation through increasing its effect on the use of ingratiation tactic. Moreover perceived power distance intervened between autonomy development and ingratiation through decreasing autonomy development's effect on ingratiation. Conducted with a Turkish sample, this study contributes to the career objects and political behavior literature, because it includes the effects of perceived power distance of the employees in this relationship.

Kaynakça

Aiken, L. S. ve West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and Interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: CA: Sage

Appelbaum, S. H. ve Hughes, B. (1998). Ingratiation as apolitical tactic: Effects within the organization. Management Decision, 36, 85-95.

Aryee, S., Chen, Z. X. ve Budhwar, P. S. (2004). Exchange fairness and employee performance: An examination of the relationship between organizational politics and procedural justive. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 94,1-14.

Ayçan, Z. (1998). Endüstri/örgüt psikolojisinde toplumsal kültürün yeri. S. Tevrüz, (Ed.), Endüstri ve örgütpsikolojisi-II içinde (21 -34). Ankara: Türk Psikologlar Derneği.

Barbuto Jr., J. E., Fritz, S. M. ve Marx, D. (2002). A field examination of two measures of work motivation as predictors of leaders' influence tactics. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 601-616.

Baron, R. M. ve Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Bartol, K. M., ve Martin, D. C. (1990). When politics pays: factors influencing manegerial compensation decisions. Personnel Psychology, 43, 599-615.

Basım, N., Tatar, İ. ve Şahin, N. H. (2006). Çalışma yaşamında izlenim yönetimi: Bir ölçek uyarlama çalışması. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 9, 1-17.

Benjamin, A. J., Riggio, R. E. ve Mayes, B. T. (1996). Reliability and factor structure of Budner's Tolerance for Ambiguity Scale. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 625-632.

Börü, D. ve İslamoğlu, G. (2007). Politik davranışı etkileyen bireysel ve kuramsal faktörler. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 25, 101 -127.

Bruins, J. (1999). Social power and influence tactics: A theoretical introduction. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 7-14.

Bye, H. H., Sandal, G. M., Vijver, F. J. R, Çakar, N. D. ve Franke, G. H. (2011). Personal values and intended self presentation during job interviews: A cross-cultural comparison. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 60, 160-182.

Ceylan, S. (2004). Kamu ve özel sektörde yöneticiye yönelik etkileme taktiklerinin yönetici cinsiyeti, çalışan cinsiyeti ve etkileme taktiklerinin kullanılma amaçları ile ilişkisi. Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.

Çalışkan, K. (2006). Politik davranış öncelleri ve sonuçları. Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Doğan, S. ve Kılıç, S. (2009). Örgütlerde "izlenim yönetimi davranışı" üzerine kavramsal bir inceleme. Atatürk Üniversitesi iktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 23, 53-83.

Drory, A. ve Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2010). Organizational politics and human resource management: A typology and the Israeli experience. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 194-202.

Dulebohn, J. H., Shore, L. M., Kunze, M. ve Dookeran, D. (2005). The differential impact of OCBS and influence tactics on leader reward behavior and performance ratings over time. Organizational Analysis, 13, 73-90.

Eagly, A. H. ve Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 735-754.

Farmer, S. M., Maslyn, J. M., Fedor, D. B. ve Goodman, J. S. (1997). Putting upward influence strategies in context. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 17-42.

Ferris, G. R. ve King, T. R.(1991). Politics in human resources decisions: A walk on the dark side. Organizational Dynamics, 20, 59-71.

Ferris, G. R., Dulebohn, J. H., Frink, D. D., George-Falvy, J., Mitchell, T. R. ve Matthews, L. M. (2009). Job and organizational characteristics, accountability, and employee influenc q. Journal of Managerial Issues, 21, 518-533.

Fu, P. P. ve Yukl, G. (2000). Perceived effectiveness of influence tactics in the United States and China. Leadership Quarterly, 11, 251-266.

Fu, P. P., Peng, T. K., Kennedy, J. C. ve Yukl, G. (2003). Examining the preferences of influence tactics in Chinese societies: A comparison of Chinese managers in Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 32-46.

Grams, W. C. ve Rogers, R. W. (1990). Power and personality: Effects of machiavellianism, need for approval, and motivation on use of influence tactics. The Journal of General Psychology, 117, 71-82

Harris, K. J., Kacmar, K. M., Zivnuska, S. ve Shaw, J. D. (2007). The impact of political skill on impression management effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 278-285.

Heilbrun, A. B. (1983). Cognitive factors in social effectiveness. The Journal of Social Psychology, 120, 235-243.

Higgins, C. A., Judge, T. A. ve Ferris, G. R. (2003). Influence tactics and work outcomes a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 89-106

Hochwarter, W. A., Witt, L. A. ve Kacmar, K. M. (2000). Perceptions of organizational politics as a moderator of the relationship between consciousness and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 472-478.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, Summer, 42-63.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Cultures consequences second edition: comparing values, behaviors, instutions, and organizations across nations. Thosand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Holtgraves, T. ve Yang, J. (1992). Interpersonal underpinnings of request strategies: general differences due to culture and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 246-256.

İslamoğlu, G. ve Börü, D. (2007). Politik davranış boyutları: Bir ölçek geliştirme çalışması. Akdeniz İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 14, 135-153.

Jones, E. E. ve Pittman, T. S. (1982) Toward a general theory of strategic self presentation. J. Suls, (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self içinde (231-262). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Judge, T. A. ve Bretz Jr., R. D. (1994). Political influence behavior and career success. Journal of Management, 20, 43-65.

Kacmar, K. M., Bahrach, D. G., Harris, K. J. ve Zivnuska, S. (2011). Fostering good citizenship through ethical leadership: Exploring the moderating role of gender and organizational politics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 633-642.

Kacmar, K. M., Carlson, D. S. ve Bratton, V. K. (2004). Situational and dispositional factors as antecedents of ingra-tiatoiy behaviors in organizational settings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 309-331.

Kacmar, K. M„ Wayne, S. J. ve Wright, P. M. (2009). Subordinate reactions to the use of impression management tactics and feedback by the supervisor. Journal of Managerial Issues, 21, 498-517.

Kapautsis, I., Papalexandris, A., Nikolopoulos, A., Hochwarter, W. A. ve Ferris, G. R. (2011) Politics perceptions as moderator of the political skill-job performance relationship: A two-study, cross-national, constructive replication. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78, 123-135.

Karatepe, O. M., Babakus, E. ve Yavaş, U. (baskıda). Affectiv-ity and organizational politics as antecedents of burnout among frontline hotel employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management (2012), doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm. 2011.04.003

Kipnis, D., Schmidt, S. M. ve Wilkinson, I. (1980). Intraorga-nizational influence tactics: Explorations in getting one's way. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 440-452.

Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Fahr, J., Chen, Z. X. ve Lowe, K. B. (2009) Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 744-764.

Kirton, M. J. (1981). Areanalysis of two scales of tolerance of ambiguity. Journal of Personality Assessment, 45, 407-414.

Knippenberg, B. V. ve Steensma, H. (2003). Future interaction expectation and the use of soft and hard influence tactics. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 52, 55-67.

Liden, R. C. ve Mitchell, T. R. (1988). Ingratiatory Behaviors in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 13, 572-587.

Luthans, F. (1988). Successful vs. effective real managers. The Academy of Management Executive, 11, 127-132.

McFarland, L. A., Ryan, A. M. ve Kriska, S. D. (2002). Field study investigation of applicant use of influence tactics in a selection interview. The Journal of Psychology, 136, 383-398.

Nicotera, A. M., Smilowitz, M. ve Pearson, J. C. (1990). Ambiguity tolerance, conflict management style, and argumentativeness as predictors of innovativeness. Communications Research Reports, 7, 125-131.

O'Neil, J. (2004). Effects of gender and power on PR managers' upward influence. Journal of Managerial Issues, 16, 127-144.

Orpen, C. (1996). The effects of ingratiation and self promotion tactics on employee career success. Social Behavior and Personality, 24, 213-214.

Pandey, J. (1981). Ingratiation tactics in India. The Journal of Social Psychology, 113, 147-148.

Parker, C. P., Dipboye, R. L. ve Jackson, S. L. (1995). Perceptions of organizational politics: An investigation of antecedents and consequences. Journal of Management, 21, 891-912.

Shankar, A., Ansari, M. A. ve Saxena, S. (1994). Organizational context and ingratiatory behavior in organizations. The Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 641-647.

Ralston, D. A., Hallinger, P., Egri, C. P. ve Naothinsuhnk, S. (2005). The effects of culture and life stageon work place strategies of upward influence: A comparison of Thailand and the United States. Journal of World Business, 40, 321-337.

Randall, M. L., Cropanzano, R., Bormann, C. A., ve Birjulin, A. (1999). Organizatinal politics and organizational support as predictors of work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 159-174.

Rigby, K. ve Rump, E. E. (1982). Attitudes toward authority and authoritarian personality characteristics. The Journal of Social Psychology, 116, 61-72.

Robbins, S. P. (2001). Organizational behavior. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Rosen, C. C., Levy, P. E. ve Hall, R. J. (2006). Placing perceptions of politics in the context of the feedback environment, employee attitudes, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 211-220.

Seibert, S. E, Kraimer, M. L. ve Crant, J. M. (2001). What do proactive people do? A longitidinal model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54, 845-874.

Steensma, H. (2007). Why managers prefer some influence tactics to other tactics: A net utility explanation. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 355-362.

Thacker, R. A. ve Wayne, S. J. (1995). An examination of the relationship between upward influence tactics and assessments of promotability. Journal of Management, 21, 739-756.

Tjosvold, D. ve Sun, H. F. (2001). Effects of influence tactics and social contexts in conflict: an experiement on relationships in China. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 12, 239-258.

Todd, S. Y., Harris, K. J., Harris, R. B. ve Wheeler, A. R. (2009). Career success implications of political skills. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149, 179-204.

Treadway, D. C., Ferris, G. R., Duke, A. B., Adams, G. L. ve Thatcher, J. B. (2007). The moderating role of subordinate political skill on supervisors' impressions of subordinate ingratiation and ratings of subordinate interpersonal facilitation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 848-855.

Treadway, D. C, Ferris, G. R., Hochwarter, W., Perrewe, P., Witt, L. A ve Goodman, J. M. (2005). The role of age in the perceptions of politics - Job performance relationship: A three study constructive replication. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 872-881.

Wayne, S. J., Liden, R. C., Graf, I. K., ve Ferris, G. R. (1997). The role of upward influence tactics in human resource decisions. Personnel Psychology, 50, 979-1006

Yamaguchi, I. (2009). Influences of organizational communication tactics on trust with procedural justice effects: A cross-cultural study between Japanese and American workers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33, 21-31.

Yaylacı, G. (2006). Organizasyonlarda kişilerarası etki taktikleri ve kullanımına ilişkin literatür çalışması. Bilig, 36, 93-112.

Yolaç, S. (2009). Politik davranış ve örgütsel adalet algısı arasındaki ilişkinin belirlenmesine yönelik bir araştırma. Öneri, 31, 157-166.

Yukl, G. ve Falbe, C. M. (1990). Influence tactics and objectives in upward, downward and lateral influence attempts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 132-140.

Yukl, G. ve Tracey, J.B. (1992). Consequence of influence tactics used with subordinates, peers and boss. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 525-535.

Yukl, G., Fu, P. P. ve McDonald, R. (2003). Cross-cultural differences in perceived effectiveness of influence tactics for initiating or resisting change. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 52, 68-82.

Yukl, G„ Seifert, C. F. ve Chavez, C. (2008) Validation of the extended Influence Behavior Questionnaire. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 609-921.

Zanzi, A., Arthur, M. B. ve Shamir, B. (1991). The relationship between career concerns and political tactics in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 219-233.

Kaynak Göster