Türkiye'de Çevreye İlişkin Toplumsal Eğilimler: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Analiz

Toplumsal çevresel değerler, çevreciliğin bir bileşeni olarak farklı boyutlarda araştırılmaktadır. Toplumsal çevresel değerler, bireylerin kendilerine yöneltilen çevresel konulardaki durumlara ilişkin tutum ya da tavır alışlarını ifade eder. Çevresel durumlar, ekonomik, gelişmeye ilişkin, endüstriyel, bilimsel ya da çevre ile ilgili her hangi bir durum olabilir. Bu bağlamda toplumsal çevresel değerler batı ülkelerinde daha yoğun olarak araştırılırken, batı dışı ülkelerde daha az yoğunlukta araştırılmaktadır. Gelişmekte olan bir ülke olan Türkiye’de çevresel konular giderek artan ölçüde kamuoyu ilgisini çekmektedir. Bununla birlikte Türkiye’de bir çevresel duyarlılığın oluşmakta olduğu söylenebilir. Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de çevresel toplumsal eğilimler araştırılacaktır. Çevresel toplumsal eğilimlerin incelenmesi bağlamında, çevre toplum ilişkilerini inceleyen iki temel yaklaşımdan söz etmek mümkündür: İnsan merkezli dünya görüşü ve doğa merkezli dünya görüşü. İnsan merkezli dünya görüşüne göre insanoğlu doğanın mutlak hakimi olduğuna ve doğanın insan kullanımı için araçsal bir öneme sahip olduğuna inanılır. Diğer yandan doğa merkezli dünya görüşüne göre doğa sadece insan kullanımı için araçsal bir öneme sahip değildir, doğa insan kullanımından bağımsız olarak kendi başına varlık alanıdır. Genel olarak toplumsal çevresel değerler, farklı toplumlarda, insan merkezlilikten doğa merkezliliğe doğru farklılıklar gösterebilmektedir. İnsan merkezli dünya görüşü daha çok “gelişme” olgusuna ağırlık verirken, doğa merkezli dünya görüşü daha çok doğa koruma olgusuna ağırlık vermektedir. Bu araştırmanın temel varsayımı ise, Türk toplumunun çevresel değerlerinin iki çevresel yaklaşım arasında bir yerde yer aldığı yönündedir. Bu araştırma bir uygulamalı alan araştırmasıdır. 2003 yılı yaz aylarında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın evreni 18 yaş ve üstü ve yasal ve kurumsal olarak bir kısıtlaması olmayan tüm Türkiye nüfusu olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi ise tüm Türkiye’yi temsil eden 1028 kişi ve Çevre Bakanlığı Çalışanlarından oluşan 135 kişiden oluşmaktadır. Örneklem tekniği çok basamaklı tabakalı örneklemdir. Araştırma tekniği, tam yapılandırılmış kapalı uçlu sorulardan oluşan soru formunun belirlenen örneklem birimlerine yüz-yüze görüşme tekniği ile uygulanması şeklinde olmuştur.
Anahtar Kelimeler:

Türkiye

Public environmental attitudes as one of the components of the environmentalism have been investigated for many respects. Public environmental values have been assumed as responses of people to given environmental issues or circumstances. The given issues or circumstances might be economical, developmental, industrial, scientific or anything related to environment. In this respect, public environmental values extensively have been investigated in the western countries and lesser extend in the non-western countries. Turkey is as a developing country that environmental issues have taking more public attention for last few decades in there. Therefore, an environmental awareness has been emerging in Turkish public. This present research aims to investigate public environmental values in Turkey. There are two main stream perspectives to evaluate relationship between society and the environment in the environmental sociology literature: The anthropocentric worldview and the eco-centric worldview. The anthropocentric worldview mainly underlines that human-being is the dominator of the natural environment and natural environment has valued for human usage. On the other hand, according to the eco-centric worldview, natural environment has valued for not (only) human usage, it is valued for its own sake too. In general, it is assumed that public environmental awareness varies from the anthropocentric form to the eco-centric form. The anthropocentric form of public awareness is more development oriented and by definition human oriented, and the eco-centric form of public awareness is more environment oriented. In this research, however, it is assumed that Turkish people’s environmental attitudes are in between of the anthropocentric form and the eco-centric from of public awareness. This research is an applied field research conducted summer of 2003 in Turkey. The research population is all Turkish population with aging over 18 years old and non-institutionalized. The research sampling is 1028 and assumed to represent all general public and 135 represent experts on the environment who work in Turkish Ministry Environment and Forestry. The sampling technique used in this research is a multi-stage stratified sampling. The data collected by using face-to-face interview and the interview questionnaire has been constructed with fully structured close-ended questions.
Keywords:

Turkey,

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