Selahaddin'in Beytülmakdis'i teslim alma yolu -Sulh (antlaşma) ya da zorlama- ve bunun etkileri

Selahaddin'in Beytülmakdis'i teslim alma yolu -Sulh (antlaşma) ya da zorlama- ve bunun etkileri.

The Surrender of Bayt al-Maqdis to Salah al-Din through Sulh (treaty) or ‘Unwah (by force) and its implications

The conquest of cities and regions in Islam involve special provisions related to the way Muslims deal with these cities and countries. For example, if a city is taken peacefully, or by Sulh, dealing with it differs from if it had been taken by force. Accordingly, when Umar ibn al-Khattab conquered Bayt al-Maqdis through peaceful surrender he gave its people an assurance of safety, giving them Aman over their lives, possessions, churches; this was the case for all cities taken in this way. As for the cities that were conquered both by force, or ‘Unwah, and also through Sulh at the same time, such as Damascus, then the half that was taken peacefully had the rule of peace, and the other half had the rule of force. Thus, the Muslims had the right to take everything in the latter and transfer the ownership of everything in it to the Muslims, including churches and other possessions. It became established that with regards to what was conquered by force, the possessions were either divided as spoils of war, or regarded as Waqf by the Muslims. In Salah al-Din's conquest of Bayt al-Maqdis, a number of questions were raised, including whether the conquest was by force or by peace, given that Salah al-Din transferred the use of some churches and facilities yet left other churches and did not change them. This article discusses how Bayt al-Maqdis was handed over to Salah al-Din, as he swore that he would only conquer it by force after he offered peace to its inhabitants several times before besieging it. The article also discusses the implications of this in terms of the handing-over terms and the changes that Salah al-Din made on the ground after liberating the city.

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APA El-awaisi, K . (2021). تسليم بيت المقدس للسلطان صلاح الدين الأيوبي سنة 583هـ/1187م هل كان صلحًا أم عنوة وتداعيات ذلك . Journal of Islamicjerusalem Studies , 21 (1) , 91-110 . DOI: 10.31456/beytulmakdis.832114