ICT Competence and Needs of Turkish EFL Instructors: The Role of Gender, Institution and Experience

This study aimed to scrutinize Information and Communication Technology (ICT) competence of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instructors in Turkey and their professional development (PD) needs in ICT in relation to the variables of gender, institution, teaching experience, and their past PD experience. This study also explored the types of training sources EFL instructors preferred to further their PD in ICT. The data were collected by administering a questionnaire of ICT competence and PD needs of teachers. The participants were 193 EFL instructors teaching at various universities in Turkey. The data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics (i.e. Mean, Standard Deviation, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test). The results indicated that EFL instructors perceived their current ICT competence as low in the seven major areas. However, gender and previous PD experience in ICT played a role in their perceived ICT competence. The study also revealed that regardless of gender, type of institution, previous PD experience in ICT, and teaching experience, EFL instructors reported a medium and higher amount of ICT training needs. The most preferred modes of PD in ICT were immersion or internship activities while the least preferred modes of PD were workshops/conferences/seminars. The implications of the study are also presented. © 2019 EJAL & the Authors. Published by Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics (EJAL). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY-NC-ND) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, S. E. (2009). Nigerian in-service teachers’ self-assessment in core technology competence and their professional development needs in ICT. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 26(1), 17-28.

Akbaba-Altun, S. (2006). Complexity of integrating computer technologies into education in Turkey. Educational Technology & Society, 9(1), 176-187.

Akçaoğlu, M. (2008). Exploring technology integration approaches and practices of pre-service and in-service English language teachers. Master thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.

Chapelle, C. A. (2010). The spread of computer-assisted language learning. Language Teaching, 43(1), 66-74.

Chen, W., Tan, A., & Lim C. (2012). Extrinsic and intrinsic barriers in the use of ICT in teaching: A comparative case study in Singapore. Proceedings of ASCILITE Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education Annual Conference, Wellington, 2012 (pp. 191-196).

Chen, Y. (2008). A mixed method study of EFL teachers’ Internet use in language instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(4), 1015-1028.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Lincoln: Sage.

Davis, R. (2006). Utopia or chaos?: The impact of technology on language teaching. Teaching English with Technology, 6(4).

Efaw, J. (2005) No teacher left behind: How to teach with technology. Educause Quarterly, 4, 26–32.

Fraenkel, J.R., & Wallen, N.E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education(5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gülbahar, Y., & Güven, I. (2008). A survey on ICT usage and the perceptions of social studies teachers in Turkey. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 11(3).

Hanson-Smith, E. (Ed.). (2000). Technology-enhanced learning environments. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Hismanoğlu, M. (2015). Turkish K-12 EFL teachers' attitudes toward ICT integration into language instruction. Journal of Educational & Instructional Studies in the World, 5(1).

İbrahim, A.E. (2010). Information and communication technologies in ELT. Journal of Language Teaching and Research. 1(3), 211-244.

Kalogiannakis, M. (2010). Training with ICT for ICT from the trainee’s perspective. A local ICT teacher training experience. Education and Information Technologies, 15(1), 3–17.

Karakaya, K. (2010). An investigation of English language teachers' attitudes toward computer technology and their use of technology in language teaching. MA thesis, Metu, Ankara.

Lamtara, S. (2014). Teachers' ICT practices: A case study of a Moroccan EFL teacher. Arab World English Journal, 5(4).

Lorenzo, c. (2002). ICT professional development for effective technology use. Retrieved from: http://www.schoolnet.ph/school/forummessage?-Id=7463&forum-id=7413 on November 10, 2018.

Marin, E. (2015). Professional development on using ICT-an ongoing process. The International Scientific Conference e-Learning and Software for Education (Vol. 2, p. 236). " Carol I" National Defence University.

Mulholland, R. (2006). A technology snapshot: Teacher preparation program and the local public schools. Contemporary issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 6(2), 284–292.

Ovens, P. (1999). Can teachers be developed?. Journal of In-service Education, 25(2), 275-306.

Özdemir A. E. (2013). Improving pre-service English language teachers’ ICT skills and developing positive attitudes towards the use of technology in language teaching through an online course. Master’s Thesis, Çukurova University, Adana.

Saklavcı A. (2010). The Use of the internet among EFL teachers at high schools in Eskişehir. Master’s Thesis, Anadolu University, Eskişehir.

Sang, G., Valcke, M., Braak, J., & Tondeur, J. (2010). Student teachers’ thinking processes and ICT integration: predictors of prospective teaching behaviors with educational technology. Computers & Education, 54(1), 103–112.

Schrum, L. (2000). Technology as a tool to support instruction. Retrieved from: http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/tech/tech004.shtml on December 29, 2017.

Selvi, B., (2015). EFL teachers’ use of informatıon and communication technologies (ICT) in their classroom practice: Artvin sample. Master thesis, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum.

Shawcross, P. (2004). Technology in language teaching. Proceedings of the First ICAO Aviation Language Symposium, Montreal.

Silva, A. J. P. (2007). The impact report. Retrieved from: http://pshbwvcomputerssciencedepartment.blogspot.com/2007/12/ict-impact/report.html on November 7, 2017.

Solmaz, O. (2011). Liselerdeki İngilizce öğretmenlerinin kişisel ve mesleki gelişim için bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri. Master thesis, Dicle University, Diyarbakır.

UNESCO, I.C.T. (2011). Competency framework for teachers. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Uzun, L. (2015). The pedagogical courses in the ELT program in Turkish higher education: How efficient are they? International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 5(4), 777– 789.

Volman, M., & Van Eck, E. (2001). Gender equity and information technology in education: The second decade. Review of Educational Research, 71(4), 613–634.

Wang, Y. (2006) Stand-alone computer courses in teachers’ IT training. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 29(3).

Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C. (2000). Technology and second language teaching. Handbook of undergraduate second language education, 15, 303-318.

Zhou, G. (2007). Adoption of educational technology ten years after setting strategic goals; A Canadian University case. Australian Journal of Educational Technology. 23(4), 508–528.

Kaynak Göster

  • ISSN: 2149-1135
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 3 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 2015

234 37

Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

ICT Competence and Needs of Turkish EFL Instructors: The Role of Gender, Institution and Experience

Özdenur ARDIÇ, Hatime ÇİFTÇİ

Effect of Input Mode on EFL Free-Recall Listening Performance: A Mixed-Method Study

Yali SHI

The Role of Vocabulary vs. Syntactic Knowledge in L2 Reading Comprehension


Processing Instruction Revisited: Does it Lead to Superior Performance in Interpretation and Production?


One Hand Washes the Other and Both Wash the Face: Individuality versus Collaboration in L2 Writing


Thinking English Translation: Analysing and Translating English Source Texts, Stella Cragie and Ann Pattison. Routledge, Oxon / New York (2018). 134 pp., Paperback: £23.99, Hardback: £88.00, ISBN: 978-1-138-71394-9


A Proverb Learned is a Proverb Earned: Proverb Instruction in EFL Classrooms


Challenges of English Language Teaching in High Schools in Turkey and Possible Suggestions to Overcome Them

Aycan Demir AYAZ, Sinem OZKARDAS, Tuba ÖZTURAN

Tests, Measurements and Research Methods in Behavioural Sciences, Arun Kumar Singh, (2017), Fifth edition. Publisher: Bharati Bhawan Publishers & Distributors; Binding: Paperback Language: English ISBN-10: 8177097431 ISBN-13: 978-8177097436 No. of pages: ix+616.


Using Humor in Language Classrooms: Greasing the Wheels or Putting a Spanner in the Works? A Study on Humor Styles of Turkish EFL Instructors