Psikiyatrik hasta saldırıları ruh sağlığı alanında çalışanların mesleki uygulamada karşılaştıkları önemli olaylardandır. Bu saldırılar yaralanma, geçici veya kalıcı sakatlıklar, travma sonrası stres bozukluğu dahil ciddi sorunlar meydana getirmekte ve hatta bazen ölümle sonuçlanabilmekte, ayrıca klinik ve ekonomik yüke neden olmaktadır. Konu, önemine oranla az ilgi görmektedir çünkü saldırılar, mağdur personel tarafından, görevinin bir parçası olarak kabul görmekte, dile getirilmemekte ve yasal işleme başvurulmamaktadır. Psikiyatristlerin %5-48’inin hasta ve/veya hasta yakınları tarafından şiddet gördüğü, 4 yıllık asistanlık eğitimi boyunca asistanların %40-50’sinin fiziksel saldırıya uğradığı gösterilmiştir. Yardımcı sağlık personeli de hastalar, hasta yakınları ve ziyaretçiler tarafından sıklıkla duygusal, sözel ve fiziksel şiddete maruz kalmaktadır. Saldırıya maruz kalma riski yüksek olan personelin güvenliğinin sağlanması önemlidir ve çalışanlara bu konularda devamlı eğitim verilmelidir. Bu yazıda hasta saldırılarının nedenleri ve saldırgan hastaya yaklaşım (farmakolojik tedavi ve diğer önlemler) gözden geçirilmiştir.
Assaults by psychiatric patients are serious occupational exposures for mental health professionals. These assaults may result in injuries, transient or persistent disabilities, severe psychological stress including posttraumatic stress disorder, and death, and cause clinical and economic burden. This issue attracts scant attention when considering its importance. Because these assaults are considered by victims as a part of their jobs and are not verbalized, they do not take legal actions. It has been shown that 5-48% of psychiatrists are subjected to violence by patients and patients’ relatives, and 40-50% of residents are physically violated during their 4-year residency training. Other healthcare personnel are also emotionally, verbally and physically violated by patients, patients’ relatives and visitors. It is of importance to provide security for staff members who are at high-risk for these assaults and continuous training on these issues should be provided for employees. In this article, the causes of assaults by patients and approaches to assaultive patients (pharmacological treatment and other precautions) are reviewed.
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