Su kaynaklı bir parazit: Cryptosporidium

İlk kez 1907'de farelerde bildirilmiş olmasına rağmen, son 30 yıldır insanlarda hastalık yaptığı bilinmektedir. Moleküler biyolojik tekniklerdeki gelişmeler cryp- tosporidiosise bakış açımızı çok değiştirmiştir. Sadece immun yetmezlikli kişileri etkileyen nadir bir hastalık olarak görülürken, bugün su kaynaklı büyük salgınlardan sorumlu bir halk sağlığı sorunu olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Bu derlemede Cryptosporidium'a ait bilgiler son literatürler ışığında gözden geçirilmiştir.

A waterborn parasite: Cryptosporidium

Although first described in mice in 1907, Cryptosporidium is known as a human disease for only 3 decades. Advances in moleculer biologic techniques has greatly changed our understanding of cryptosporidiosis. Previously known as a rare disease of immunodeficient patients, has became a public health concern responsible for waterborn outbreaks. In this review, we overviewed our knowledge of Cryptosporiodium in spite of current literature.

Kaynakça

1. Egyed Z, Sreter T, Szell Z, Vargab I. Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp.—recent developments and future needs. Vet Parasitol 2003; 13:103-114.

2. Dirim D, Turgay N, Alkan M Z. Bir Cryptosporidiosis olgusunun Kinyoun Asit-Fast boyası ve Polimeraz Zincir Reaksiyonu ile takibi. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi 2003; 27: 237-239.

3. İnceboz T, Sarı B, Orhan V. Gastrointestinal şikayetleri olan olgularda Cryptosporidium spp. araştırılması. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi 2002; 26: 149-150.

4. Xiao L, Fayer R, Ryan U, Upton SJ. Cryptosporidium Taxonomy: Recent Advances and Implications for Public Health. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004; 72-97.

5. Aksoy Ü, Erbay A, Akısü Ç, Apa H, Özkoç S, Öztürk S. Intestinal parasites in children with neoplasms. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2003; 45:129-132.

6. Clark DP. New insights into human cryptosporidiosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999; 12:554-563.

7. Griffiths JK. Human cryptosporidiosis: epidemiology, transmission, clinical disease, treatment, and diagnosis. Adv Parasitol 1998; 40:37-85.

8. Miron D, Kenes J, Dagan R. Calves as ^ source'df an outbreak of cryptosporfiiosis among young children in an agricultural closed community. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991; 10:438-441.

9. Çeliksöz A, Çelik S. Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi Hasta- nesi'nde gastroenteritli ve malnütrisyonlu hastalarda Cryptosporidium spp. Araştırması. Türkiye Parazitolji Dergisi 2003; 27: 85-88.

10. O'Donoghue PJ. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in man and animals. Int J Parasitol 1995; 25: 139-195.

11. Rose JB. Occurrence and control of Cryptosporidium in drinking water. In McFeters, G.A. (ed) Drinking Water Microbiology. Springer-Verlag, New York 1990; 294-321.

12. Morgan-Ryan UM, Fall A, Ward LA, et al. Cryptospori¬ dium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens. J Eukaryot Microbiol 2002; 49:433-440.

13. Katsumata T, Hosea D, Ranuh IG, Uga S, Yanagi T, Kohno S. Short report: possible Cryptosporidium muris infection in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2000; 62:70-72.

14. Xiao L, Ryan UM, Graczyk TK, et al. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. İn captive reptiles. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70:891-899.

15. Butler BJ, May field CI. Cryptosporidium spp. - A Review of the Organism, the Disease, and Implications for Managing Water Resources, 1996. Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

16. Xiao L, Morgan UM, Limor J. Genetic diversity within Cryptosporidium parvum and related Cryptosporidium species. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999; 65:3386-3391.

17. Sulaiman IM, Morgan UM, Thompson RC, Lal AA, Xiao L. Phylogenetic relationships of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the 70-kilodalton heat shock protein (HSP70) gene. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000; 66:2385- 2391.

18. Joachim A. Human Cryptosporidiosis: An Update With Special Emphasis on the Situation in Europe. J Vet Med 2004; 51: 251-259.

19. Peng MM, Xiao L, Freeman AR. Genetic polymorphism among Cryptosporidium parvum isolates: Evidence of two distinct human transmission cycles. Emerg Infect 1997; 3: 567-573.

20. Xiao L, Sulaiman IM, Ryan UM. Host adaptation and ho/t-parasite coevolution in Cryptosporidium: implications for taxonomy and public health. Int J Parasitol 2002; 32: 1773-1785.

21. Pedraza-Diaz S, Amar CF, McLauchlin J. Cryptosporidi- um meleagridis from humans: molecular analysis and description of a.ected patients. J Infect 2001; 42: 243-250.

22. Dillingham RA, Lima AA, Guerrant RL. Cryptospo- ridiosis: epidemiology and impact, Microbes ai^ Infection 2002; 4: 1059-1066.

23. Carpenter C, Fayer R, Trout J, Beach M J. Chlorine Disinfection of Recreational Water for Cryptosporidium parvum. Emerging Infectious Disease 1999; 5:579_584.

24. Fayer R, Morgan U, Upton SJ. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification. Int J Parasitol 2000; 30: 1305-1322.

25. Sulaiman IM, Xiao L, Yang C. Differentiating human from animal isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Emerg Infect Dis 1998; 4: 681-685.

26. McLauchlin J, Amar C, Pedraza-Diaz S, Nichols GL. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp.in the United Kingdom: Results of genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in 1,705 fecal samples from humans and 105 fecal samples from livestock animals. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 3984-3990.

27. Pereira SJ, Ramirez NE, Xiao L, Ward LA. Pathogenesis of human and bovine Cryptosporidium parvum in gnotobiotic pigs. J Infect Dis 2002; 186: 715-718.

28. Xiao L, Ryan UM. Cryptosporidiosis: An update in molecular epidemiology. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2004; 17: 483-490.

29. Smith HV. Detection of parasites in the environment. Parasitology 1998; 117: 113-141.

30. Karanis P, Scho" nen D, Seitz HM. Giardia and Cryptos- poridium in backwash water from rapid sand .lters used for drinking water production. Zentralbl Bakteriol 1996; 284:107-114.

31. Ward PI, Deplazes P, Regli W, Rinder H, Mathis A. ^Detection of eight Cryptosporidium gefıotypes in surface and waste waters in Europe. Parasitojogy 2002; 124: 359-368.

32. Lahti K, Hiisvirta L. Causes of-waterborne outbreaks in community water, systems in Finland: 1980—1992. Water Sci Technol 1995; 31: 33-36.

33. Smith HV, Patterson WJ, Hardie R. An outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidiosis caused by post-treatment contamination. Epidemiol Infect 1989;103:703-715.

34. Karanis P, Papadopoulou C, Kimura A, Economou E, Kourenti C, Sakkas H. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in natural, drinking and recreational water of Northwestern Greece. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 2002; 30:49-58.

35. Conio O, Palumbo F, Borelli E, Carraro E, Pignata C Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts occurrence in raw and drinking water in Italy. 20th Annual Meeting of the Italian Section Society of Protozoologists, Genova. 1999; October 8-9.

36. Mac Kenzie W R, Hoxie NJ, Proctor ME, Gradus MS, Blair KA, Peterson DE. A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. N Engl J Med 1994; 331:161-167.

37. Eisenberg JNS, Lei X, Hubbard AH. The Role of Disease Transmission and Conferred Immunity in Outbreaks: Analysis of the 1993 Cryptosporidium Out- break in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 161: 62-72.

38. Dietz V, Vugia D, Nelson R, et al. Active, Moltisite, Laboratory-based Surveillance For Cryptosporidium parvum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 2000; 368-372.

39. Chappella CL, Okhuysen PC. Cryptosporidiosis, Curr Opin Infect Dis 2002; 15:523-527

40. Monis PT, Thompson RCA. Cryptosporidium and Giardia-zoonoses: Fact or fiction? Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2003; 3: 233-244.

41. Akyon Y, Erguven S, Ankan S, Yurdakok K, Gunalp A. Cryptosporidium parvum'in a group of Turkish children. TurkJPed 1999; 41: 89-96.

42. Molbak K, Andersen M, Aaby P. Cryptosporidium infec- tion in infancy as a cause of malnutrition: a community study from Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65:149.

43. Farthing M. Clinical aspects of human ^cryptosporidiosis. Contrib Microbiol 2000; 6: 50-74.

44. Yıldız M, Çöplü N, Kılıç S, Babür C, Öncül Ö, Esen B. İshali olan solid tümörlü olgularda Cryptosporidium spp. araştırılması. Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi 2001;25: 1-8.

45. Delibaş S, Kurugöl Z, Pektaş B, Vardar F, Özen S, Turgay N. Case report: Diarrhea due to Crytosporidium in a hypogamaglobulinemic child. Acta Parasitologica Turcica 2001;25: 113-114.

46. Robin G, Fraser D, Orr N, et al. Cryptosporidium infection in Bedoin infants assesed by prospective evalution of anticryptosporidial antibodies and stool examination. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:194-201.

47. Ministry of Health by ESR. Cryptosporidium parvum, Prepared for the Ltd. 2 Issued May 2001.

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