Uluslararası çerçeve anlaşmalar ve sendikalar: Olanaklar, sınırlar

Bu çalışmada, uluslararası sendikal hareket içerisinde son yıllarda tartışılan uluslararası çerçeve anlaşmaların genel olarak değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Sendikaların yaşadığı krize yanıt olarak çeşitli politika önerileri tartışılırken, küresel sendika federasyonları da bu bağlamda ulusötesi şirketlere karşı sendikaların dengeleyici bir unsur olabilmeleri için uluslararası çerçeve anlaşmaları kullanmaya başlamışlardır. Bu anlaşmalar esas olarak ILO’nun belirlediği temel çalışma standartlarının, ilgili ulusötesi şirketin faaliyet yürüttüğü tüm ülkelerde uygulanmasına dayanmaktadır. Uluslararası çerçeve anlaşmalarda sermayenin ve sendikaların oynadığı rol, hukuksal dayanağın ve yaptırım gücünün olmaması, kurumsal sosyal sorumluluk kavramı ile olan yakınlık, Avrupa merkezli ulusötesi şirketleri kapsaması gibi yönleri itibariyle eleştirilmektedir. Çalışmada temel olarak uluslararası çerçeve anlaşmaların sendikal harekete sağladığı olanaklar ve bunların sınırları tartışılmaktadır. Küresel sendika federasyonlarının deneyimleri, çerçeve anlaşmaların genel olarak ve Türkiye’de sendikal mücadeleye katkı sağlayabileceğine işaret etmektedir. Diğer taraftan, uluslararası çerçeve anlaşmaların sendikaların mücadelelerinde sadece yardımcı bir rol üstlenebileceği unutulmamalı; anlaşmaların sermaye ile emek arasındaki genel güç dengesi ve sendikaların yaşadıkları yapısal krizin temel belirleyenlerinden bağımsız değerlendirilmemesi gerekir.

In this article, it is aimed to evaluate international framework agreements generally that is discussed among international trade unionist movement in recent years. While different policy suggestions debated as a response to crisis of trade unions, in that context global union federations have started to utilize from international framework agreements to become a counter balancing power against transnational corporations. These agreements are mainly based on implementation of ILO’s core labour standarts in all countries that relavant transnational company operates. International framework agreements are also criticized from different angles like role of capital and unions in agreements, lack of legal basis and sanction power, relevance with the concept of corporate social responsibility, coverage of mainly European centered transnational corporations. In this article, possibilities and limits of intenational framework agreements for trade unions are discussed Experiences of global union federations indicate that international framework agreements may contribute for unionist movement in general and in Turkey. On the other hand, it is important not to forget that international framework agreements can take on only a supplementary role in unionist struggles and agreements shouldn’t be evaluated independently from the balance of power between capital and labour and main determinants of the crisis that trade unions face.

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