HEADDRESS FASHIONS AND THEIR SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE IN ANCIENT WESTERN ANATOLIA: THE SEVENTH THROUGH FOURTH CENTURIES BCE

This study investigates the most popular headdress fashions in ancient Western Anatolia as detected in the arts of the region from seventh to fourth centuries BCE. The origins of each headdress, its possible meaning within the socio-cultural context, and its occurrence in Greek and Near Eastern iconography are also discussed. The exami- nation of the most popular headdresses is classified under five typological categories; polos, veil, bashlyk, griffon crown, and the Phrygian cap. Examples come from representations in different media, ranging from wall painting and archi- tectural sculpture to sculpture in the round and ivory statuettes. The study reveals that some of the headdresses such as the polos and veil originate in Bronze Age Anatolia, while others like bashlyk was introduced to Anatolian costume fashion and imagery through the Achaemenid influence. Besides providing a typological classification of Anatolian headdress imagery, the close examination of the “language of headdress” in ancient Anatolia hints at the socio- cultural and religious associations of the each fashion as well as the roles and status of the wearers. The polos and veil, for examples, could be related to the popularity of the fertility cults in Anatolia and matronly status, while the bashlyk fashion among aristocratic men invokes the wearers’ association with the Persian nobility or courtly-military status.

KIYAFETİN DİLİ: ANTİK BATI ANADOLU’DA Ş APKA VE BA Ş ÖRTÜSÜ MODALAR

Bu çalışmada Antik Batı Anadolu’da MÖ 7. ve 4. yüzyılları arasında popüler olan şapka ve başörtüsü çeşitleri, sanatsal tasvirlerden yola çıkılarak incelenmiştir. Çalışma kapsamında kullanılan tasvirler, duvar resminden, mermer heykellere, mimari süslemelerden, fildişi heykelciklere çok çeşitli malzemelerden seçilmiştir. Popüler başlık çeşitleri beş ana tipolojik kategoride ele alınmıştır: polos, grifon tacı, başörtüsü/duvak, uzantılı başlık ve Frig şapkası. Ele alınan herbir başlık modası için köken araştırması yapılmış, şapkanın Yunan ve Yakın Doğu ikonografisindeki yeri incelenerek, Anadolu kültürel ortamında sembolize ettiği muhtemel sosyal kimliklere değinilmiştir. Bu araştırma sonucunda polos ve başörtüsü gibi bazı başlık modalarının Tunç Çağı Anadolusu’na dayanırken, uzantılı başlık olarak adlandırılan modanın 5. yüzyılda Pers etkisi sonrası giyim repertuarına girdiği görülmüştür. Bu çalışma, Antik Anadolu kıyafet tasvirlerine tipolojik bir sınıflandırma kazandırmasının yanı sıra, ‘kıyafetin dili’ yaklaşımından yola çıkarak, farklı modaların sosyo-kültürel ve politik bağlantılarını, bu modalara uyarak giyinmiş olarak tasvir edilen kişilerin rollerini ve statülerini inceleyerek antik Anadolu sosyal tarihini de aydınlatmaya çalışır. Bu bağlamda, polos ve başörtüsü Anadolu da popüler olan bereket kültleri ve annelik statüsü ile, aristokrat erkekler arasında moda olan uzantılı başlık ise Pers kraliyetine yakınlık ve askeri kimlik ile ilişkilendirilmiştir.

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