Papanın Yanılmazlığı Doktrini: Kriterleri ve İcrası

Papayı merkeze alan ultramontanist düşüncenin hakimiyeti altında toplanan I. Vatikan Konsili, Pastor Aeternus olarak bilinen konsil yasasıyla papanın yanılmazlığını Katolik bir inanç ilkesi olarak dogmaya dahil etmiştir. Yani, Hıristiyanlığın ilk dönemlerine kadar geri götürülebilecek ve üzerinde güçlü bir ittifak bulunan Kutsal Ruh’un gözetim ve denetimi altındaki Kilisenin yanlışa düşmekten korunduğu ve hatadan münezzeh olduğu şeklindeki bir inanç, bir ölçüde  Petrus’un halefi ve Kilisenin başı kabul edilen şahsa (papa) hamledilerek papalık teolojisine nihai şekil verilmiştir. Papa bu  ilkeyle sadece Kilisenin ve piskoposların bir öğreticisi ya da pastörü olarak kalmayıp aynı zamanda kendisine emanet edilen, gizli kalmış Tanrısal vahyi ifşa eden bir ‘şâri’ ve en üst yargıç konumuna yükseltilmiştir.

THE DOCTRINE OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY: ITS CRITERIA AND EXERCISE

First Vatican Council which gathered under the domination of the ultramontanist thoughts that centered Pope, has included papal infallibility with the council law known as Pastor Aeternus into the dogma as a principle of Catholic faith. The beliefs that the church is under the supervision of the Holy Spirit which can be traced back to Christianity’s first period and found a strong alliance on it, and that the church is protected from falling into the wrong and excluded from mistake were transferred to the Church's chief (pope) to a certain extent and final shape was given papal theology. Pope was raised to the “law-maker” position who reveals a divine revelation and the highest judge position with this dogma. This dogma was defined in the First Vatican Council and reconsidered and expanded in the Second Vatican Council. Furthermore, this dogma has maintained its presence as a current subject of debate in almost every period, including the academic platform. Catholic theologians, however, submit that this dogma is misunderstood by both of these non-Christians, as well as a lot of time by Orthodox and Catholic Christians, especially Protestants in terms of the realization of it. These theologians express that papal infallibility is depend on to specific conditions and criteria. They impose some restrictions to this dogma. In our study, it will be explained that the nature of the infallibility doctrine, the conditions and criteria of it and Pope's identifications for the theological and moral issues from the ex cathedra.

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