Halitozis

Halitozis, nefesten yayılan kötü veya hoşa gitmeyen kokuyu tarif eden genel bir terimdir. Sıkça rastlanmasına ve genellikle organik nedenlerden kaynaklanmasına rağmen ihmal edilen bir bulgudur. Bu derleme, halitozis etiyolojisini, sınıflandırılmasını, ölçüm metotlarını ve tedavisini gözden geçirmektedir

Halitozis

Halitozis is a term describing an unpleasant or offensive odour emanatıng from the breath. Although it can be seen frequently and usually caused by organic reasons, it is usually neglected. This article reviews the etiology, classification, measurement methods and treatment of halitozis.

Kaynakça

1. Tonzetich J, Ng SK. Reduction of malodor by oral cleansing procedures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Patho 1976;42: 172-81.

2. Tonzetich J. Production and origin of oral malodor: a review of mechanisms and methods of analysis. J Periodontol 1977;48: 13-20.

3. Attia EL, Marshall KG. Halitozis. Can Med Assoc J 1982;126: 1281-5.

4. Rosenberg M. Clinical assessment of bad breath: Current concepts. JADA 1996;127: 475-82.

5. Meskin LH. A breath of fresh air. J Am Dent Assoc 1996;127: 1282-6.

6. Yaegaki K, Coil JM. Examination, classification, and treatment of halitozis; clinical perspectives. J Can Dent Assoc 2000;66: 257-61.

7. Richter JL. Diagnosis and treatment of halitozis. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1996;17: 370-2.

8. Eli I, Baht R, Kozlovsky A, Rosenberg M. The complaint of oral malodor: possible psychopathological aspects. Psychosom Med 1996;58: 156-9.

9. Quirynen M, Mongardini C, van Steenberghe D. The effect of a 1- stage full-mouth disinfection on oral malodor and microbial colonization of the tongue in periodontitis patients. A pilot study. J Periodontol 1998;69: 374-82.

10. Lu DP. Halitozis: an etiologic classification, a treatment approach, and prevention. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Patho 1982;54: 521-6.

11. Nachnani S, Clark GT. Halitozis: a breath of fresh air. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25: 218-9.

12. Rosenberg M, McCulloch CA. Measurement of oral malodor: current methods and future prospects. J Periodontol 1992;9: 776-82.

13. Miyazaki H, Sakao S, Katoh Y, Takehara T. Correlatıon between volatile sulphur compounds and certain oral health measurements in the general population. J Periodontol 1995;66: 679-84.

14. Delanghe G, Ghyselen J, van Steenberghe D. Experiences of a Belgian multidisciplinary breath odour clinic. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 1997;51: 43-8.

15. Liu XN, Shinada K, Chen XC, Zhang BX, Yaegaki K, Kawaguchi Y. Oral malodor-related parameters in the Chinese general populatıon. J Clin Periodontol 2006;33: 31-6.

16. Yaegaki K, Sanada K. Volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air from clinically healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res 1992;27: 233-8.

17. van den Broek AM, Feenstra L. De Baat C. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitozis. J Dent 2007;35: 627-35.

18. McNamara TF, Alexander JF, Lee M. The role of microorganisms in the production of oral malodor. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Patho 1972;34: 41-8.

19. Kleinberg I, Westbay G. Salivary and metabolic factors involved in oral malodor formation. J Periodontol 1992;63: 768-75.

20. Waler SM. On the transformation of sulfur-containing amino acids and peptides to volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the human mouth. Eur J Oral Sci 1997;105: 534-7.

21. Kleinberg I, Codipilly M. Modeling of the oral malodor system and methods of analysis. Quintessence Int 1999;30: 357-69.

22. Sterer N, Greenstein RB, Rosenberg M. Beta-galactosidase activity in saliva is associated with oral malodor. J Dent Res 2002;81:182-5.

23. Sterer N, Rosenberg M. Effect of deglycosylatıon of salivary glycoproteins on oral malodour production. Int Dent J 2002;52: 229-32.

24. Schmidt NF, Missan SR, Tarbet WJ, Cooper AD. The correlation between organoleptic mouth-odor ratings and levels of volatile sulfur compounds. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Patho 1978;45: 560-7.

25. Tonzetich J, Coil JM, Ng W. Gas chromatographic method for trapping and detection of volatile gas compounds from human mouth air. J Clin Dent 1991;2: 79-82.

26. Yaegaki K, Sanada K. Biochemical and clinical factors influencing oral malodor in periodontal patients. J Periodontol 1992;63: 783-9.

27. McDowell JD, Kassebaum DK. Diagnosing and treatıng halitozis. J Am Dent Assoc 1993;124: 55-64.

28. Rosenberg M, Septon I, Eli I, Bar-Ness R, Gelernter I, Brenner S, et al. Halitozis measurement by an industrial sulphide monitor. J Periodontol 1991;62: 487-9.

29. Tonzetich J. Oral malodour: an indicator of health status and oral cleanliness. Int Dent J 1978;28: 309-19.

30. Kostelc JG, Preti G, Zelson PR, Brauner L, Baehni P. Oral odors in early experimental gingivitis. J Periodontal Res 1984;19: 303-12.

31. Kato H, Yoshida A, Awano S, Ansai T, Takehara T. Quantitative detection of volatile sulphur compound-producing microorganisms in oral specimens using real time PCR. Oral Dis 2005;1: 67-71.

32. Washio J, Sato T, Koseki T, Takahashi N. Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria in tongue biofilm and their relationship with oral malodour. J Med Microbiol 2005;54: 889-95.

33. Persson S, Edlund MB, Claesson R, Carlsson J. The formation of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan by oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1990;5: 195-201.

34. Krepsi YP, Shrime MG, Kacker A. The relationship between oral malodor and volatile sulfur compound-producing bacteria. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;135: 671-6.

35. Bosy A, Kulkarni GV, Rosenberg M, McCulloch CA. Relationship of oral malodor to periodontitis: evidence of independence in discrete subpopulations. J Periodontol 1994;65: 37-46.

36. Amir E, Shimonov R, Rosenberg M. Halitozis in children. J Pediatr 1999;134: 338-43.

37. Poelmans J, Tack J, Feenstra L. Prospective study on the incidence of chronic ear complaints related to gastroesophageal reflux and on the outcome of antireflux therapy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2002;111: 933-8.

38. Spielman AI, Bivona P, Rifkin BR. Halitozis. N Y State Dent J 1996;62: 36-42.

39. Kleinberg I, Wolff MS, Codipilly DM. Role of saliva in oral dryness, oral feel and oral malodour. Int Dent J 2002;52: 236-40.

40. Koshimune S, Awano S, Gohara K, Kurihara E, Ansai T,Takehara T. Low salivary flow and volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;96: 38-41.

41. Tangerman A. Halitozis in medicine: a review. Int Dent J 2002;52: 201-6.

42. Preti G, Clark L, Cowart BJ, Feldman RS, Lowry LD, Weber E, et al. Non-oral etiologies of oral malodor and altered chemosensation. J Periodontol 1992;63: 790-6.

43. Miyazaki H, Arao M, Okamura K, Kawaguchi Y, Toyofuku A, Hoshi K,et al. Tentative classification of halitozis and its treatment needs. Niigara Dent J 1999;32: 7-11.

44. Rosenberg M, Gelernter I, Barki M, Bar-Ness R. Day-long reduction of oral malodor by a two-phase oil:water mouthrinse as compared to chlorhexidine and placebo rinses. J Periodontol 1992;63: 39-43.

45. Greenman J, El-Maaytah M, Duffield J, Spencer P, Rosenberg M, Corry D, et al. Assessing the relationship between concentrations of malodor compounds and odor scores from judges. J Am Dent Assoc 2005; 136: 749-57.

46. Rosenberg M, Kulkarni GV, Bosy A, McCulloch CAG. Reproducibility and sensitivity of oral malodor measurements with a portable sulphide monitor. J Dent Res 1991;70: 1436-40.

47. Kozlovsky A, Goldberg S, Natour I, Rogatky-Gat A, Gelernter I, Rosenberg M, et al. Efficicacy of a 2-phase oil: water mouthrinse in controlling oral malodour, gingivitis, and plaque. J Periodontol 1996;67: 577-82.

48. Kozlovsky A, Gordon D, Gelernter I, Loesche WJ, Rosenberg M, et al. Correlation between the BANA test and oral malodor parameters. J Dent Res 1994;73: 1036-42.

49. Shimura M, Yasuno Y, Iwakura M, Shimada Y, Sakai S, Suzuki K, et al. A new monitor with a zinc-oxide thin film semiconductor sensor for the measurement of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air. J Periodontol 1996;67: 396-402.

50. AC Donaldson, MP Riggio, HJ Rolph, Bagg J, Hodge PJ . Clinical examination of subjects with halitozis. Oral Dis 2007;13: 63-70.

51. Loesche WJ. The effect of antimicrobial mouthrinses on oral malodor and their status relative to US food and drug administration regulations. Quintessence International 1999;30: 311.

Kaynak Göster

Yeni Tıp Dergisi
  • ISSN: 1300-2317
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 0 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 2018

713119

Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Normal ventrikül fonksiyonları ile giden pulmoner arterden kaynaklanan sol koroner arter anomalili (ALCAPA) bir olgunun tanı koydurucu ekokardiyografik bulguları

Meki BİLİCİ, Utku Arman ÖRÜN, Burhan ÖCAL, Filiz ŞENOCAK

Multifokal atriyal taşikardi: Bir olgu

Mehmet KARACAN, Haşim OLGUN, Naci CEVİZ

Halitozis

Abdullah Barış AKCAN, Ayşen Bingöl BOZ, Seyhan Erişir OYGUCU, Murat TURHAN, Oktay DİNÇ

Evaluating the depression and related factors among the students of the Faculty of Education at Celal Bayar University

HALUK MERGEN, Erdoğmuş Berna MERGEN, Şeref TAN, KURTULUŞ ÖNGEL

Alcohol use in Turkish university students and relationship of automobile races

Emin METE, Mehtap ERKMEN, Ahmet KARADAĞ, Nükhet BAVBEK, Ferhat ÇATAL, Cüneyt TAYMAN, Nurdan URAS, Uğur DİLMEN

Fondaparinux used for severe heparin induced thrombocytopenia with subacute instent thrombosis

Murat TULMAÇ, Haksun EBİNÇ, MEHMET TOLGA DOĞRU, Murat ÖZER, Özcan ÇENELİ, VEDAT ŞİMŞEK

Prematüre retinopatisinde green lazertedavi sonuçlarımız

Ayzın Deniz SERTÖZ, SADULLAH KELEŞ, Orhan ATEŞ, İlknur Akyol SALMAN, Orhan BAYKAL, Ayhan TAŞTEKİN, İBRAHİM CANER

Palpe edilemeyen meme lezyonlarında frozen inceleme ile kalıcı kesit inceleme sonucu arasındaki ilişkide BI-RADS kategorisinin önemi

Öner MENTEŞ, Murat AKIN, Müjdat BALKAN, Erkan ÖZTÜRK, Ali HARLAK, Şahin UĞUREL, Ömer GÜNHAN, Turgut TUFAN

Metabolik sendromda paraoksonaz-1 aktivitesi ve koroner arter hastalığı ilişkisi

Cengiz AYDIN, Gül Sevim SAYDAM, Nuray YAZIHAN, Hatice SELÇUK, Ahmet TEMİZHAN

Radikal nefrektomi yapılmış lokal veya lokal ileri renal tümörlerde patolojik nekroz ve sarkomatoid varyant birlikteliğinin önemi: Retrospektif değerlendirme

Emre HURİ, Ali AYYILDIZ, Turgay AKGÜL, M. Özgür YÜCEL, Hüseyin ÜSTÜN, Cankon GERMİYANOĞLU