PHRASEOLOGISMS IN NEWSPAPERS AND THEIR COMPREHENSIBILITY FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNERS

Bu çalışmada yabancı dil öğretiminde deyimlerin önemine ve deyimlerin yabancı dil derslerinde öğretilmesine vurgu yapılmıştır. Yabancı dil olarak Almanca seçilmiş ve Türkiye'de Almanca öğrenen öğrenciler örnek alınmıştır. Yabancı dil öğretimi içerisinde deyimlerin anlamı verilmediği sürece öğrenciler için deyimler bir şey ifade etmeyecek onlar sadece birkaç sözcükten oluşan söz gurubu haline gelecektir. Fakat deyimler, kullanıldıkları toplumun kültürel yapısını yansıtır ve yabancı dil öğretiminde öğrencilerin dili her yönü ile anlayabilmesi için büyük bir öneme sahiptir. Bir dilin kültürünü yansıtan en yaygın yayın organı gazetelerdir. Gazetelerde kullanılan deyimleri Almanca öğrenen bir öğrencinin anlayıp anlamaması bunun nedenleri ve sonuçları bu çalışmaya aktarılmıştır. Bu çalışma için "Bild Zeitung", "Frankfurter Allgmeine" ve "Süddeutsche Zeitung" Almanya'daki baskı sayılarına göre seçilmiş gazetelerdir, bu üç gazetenin sadece siyaset haberleri irdelenmiştir. Diller için Avrupa Ortak Öneriler Çerçevesi'nde şu belirtilmiştir: "İnsanlar; yaşam ya da iş koşulları, gündelik işleri, hoşlandıkları ya da hoşlanmadıkları şeyler vb. hakkında kısa ve art arda sıralanmış basit deyimler ve tümceler kullanarak basit betimlemeler yapabilir." Bu ölçüte göre yabancı dil öğretimi içinde deyim öğretiminin önemi vurgulanmıştır. Bu çalışmayla gazetelerde deyimlerin taranması sonucunda ne kadar çok deyim kullanıldığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Yabancı dil öğrenen öğrencilerin deyimleri öğrenmeden okuduklarında salt bir çeviri ile anlamakta zorlanacağına ve bundan dolayı da yabancı dilde deyim öğretiminin önemine, deyimlerin yabancı dil derslerinde öğretilmesi gerekliliğine yer verilmiştir

ALMAN GAZETELERİNDEKİ DEYİMLER VE YABANCI DİL ÖĞRENEN ÖĞRENCİLER AÇISINDAN ANLAŞILABİLİRLİKLERİ

In this study, the importance of idioms in foreign language teaching and the teaching of idioms in foreign language lectures are mentioned. German as a foreign language was selected and students learning German in Turkey have been taken as an example. Unless the idioms in foreign language teaching are meaningful, they becoming only sentences composed of words. However, the idioms reflect the cultural structure of the society they are used in and they are a great pre-requisite for foreign language teaching so that learners can understand every aspect of the language. The most widespread publishing body that reflects the language of a society is the newspaper and this study aims to research the reasons why a German-speaking student does not comprehend the idioms used in newspapers and possible reasons behind this failure. The three selected German newspapers, "Bild Zeitung", "Frankfurter Allgmeine" and "Süddeutsche Zeitung" have been chosen according to the circulation numbers in Germany, and only the political news of these three newspapers have been studied. As stated in the European Common Recommendations Framework for languages, people “Can understand phrases and expressions related to areas of most immediate priority (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment) provided speech is clearly and slowly articulated According to these criteria, the importance of teaching idioms in foreign language teaching is emphasized. For this reason, this study has focused on the number of idioms used in these newspapers and the fact that without prior teaching of such idioms, students will have difficulty in understanding the meanings of idioms since they attempt to translate them using the literal meaning of the words. And therefore the importance of idioms and the teaching of idiomatic expressions in foreign language lectures have been mentioned in order to emphasize the importance of teaching idioms.In this study, the importance of idioms in foreign language teaching and the teaching of idioms in foreign language lectures were mentioned. The focus group selected for the present study constitutes learning German as a foreign language students in Turkey. Unless the idioms in foreign language teaching are meaningful, they become only sentences composed of words. However, the idioms reflect the cultural structure of the society that are used in and they are a great pre-requisite for foreign language teaching so that learners can understand every aspect of the language. The most widespread publishing body that reflects the language of a society is the newspaper and this study aims to research the reasons why a German-speaking student does not comprehend the idioms used in newspapers and possible reasons behind this failure. The three selected German newspapers, "Bild Zeitung", "Frankfurter Allgmeine" and "Süddeutsche Zeitung" have been chosen according to the circulation numbers in Germany, and only the political news of these three newspapers have been studied. As stated in the European Common Recommendations Framework for languages, people “Can understand phrases and expressions related to areas of most immediate priority (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment) is clearly and slowly articulated. According to these criteria, the importance of teaching idioms in foreign language teaching is emphasized. For this reason, this study has focused on the number of idioms used in these newspapers and it is the fact that students will have difficulty in understanding the meanings of idioms without prior teaching of such idioms since they attempt to translate them using the literal meaning of the words. And therefore the importance of idioms and the teaching of idiomatic expressions in foreign language lectures have been mentioned in order to emphasize the importance of teaching idioms. Examples The Bild Zeitung Inauguration in Washington Rockers want to protect Trump with "wall of meat" 17.01.2017 - 09:19 Cox described the task of his Rocker "brothers": "In the event that we are needed, we will form a wall of flesh to help the police. We will stand shoulder to shoulder with our brothers and take action against anyone who tries to break the police barricades. In the race are the following candidates… - Shoulder to shoulder: to be close together (Duden, 2008: 688) In this article the foreign language learner would not make a mistake with a literal translation. Since this speech is translated in Turkish as "omuz omuza" and is used with the same meaning just as in German, so the foreign language learner hasn’t got any problems to understand the article. - to be in the race: have prospects for success (Duden, 2008: 623) This speech is probably translated by the foreign language learner as "koşu içerisinde bulunmak". In this case, the foreign language learner can use the word "race" to indicate that this is a competition.This translation and its meaning can’t be regarded as completely incorrect because it partly coincides with the original meaning The Süddeutsche Zeitung NPD - the brown dwarf may continue to exist January 17, 2017, 5:41 In the future she will be able to spread her cruel hate-screens, but from then on she is under the sword of Damocles. -the sword of Damocles hangs over something or someone: Is constantly threatened by a certain danger (Duden, 2008: 157) This idiom is quite difficult to interpret, the foreign language learner will only understand the second part of the compound word and will assume that the meaning has to do with a sword or weapon. The word has nothing to do with a weapon. The literal translation "kılıç" will be misleading. Frankfurter Allgemeine May creates clear conditions 17.01.2017The British Prime Minister Theresa May's speech on Brexit confirms expectations: Britain chooses the "hard" brexit. The United Kingdom is supposed to leave the EU –without if and but. London and Brussels, no valuable negotiating time will be used to create the quadrature of the circle in the explosive question of the free movement of persons. With May's speech are also the last speculations from the table. -If and But: Doubt, Objections (Duden, 2008: 864) The foreign language learner will translate this speech individually as "eğer ve ama", which will appear to him to be meaningless. The translation of this speech as "dairenin karesi" is indeed a false representation of the speech, but the translation is also interpreted as something "impossible", which also represents the real meaning of this speech. -something from the table is stashed away: do something (Duden, 2008: 774) The foreign language learner will translate the word literally and thus it comes to a completely different meaning. Result In the practical part I have focused the newspapers “Bild Zeitung“, „ Süddeutsche Zeitung“, and „Die Frankfurter Allgemeine“ on the policy section and have looked at the idioms that appeared in these articles and examined the degree of difficulty for the foreign language learners. I have worked with 36 phrases, 17 in the Bild Zeitung, 11 in the Süddeutsche Zeitung and 8 in the Frankfurter Allgemeine. In the researched articles the representations, which represent a negative sense, for example "To announce the war / war to someone". Then the words followed with a neutral sense, for example "Immediately" and the rest form of the idioms express something positive, for example "Honor to whom honor is due". As far as equivalence is concerned, I have come to the conclusion that only 3 idioms from the total volume coincide with the Turkish translation in almost all features. Further appearances come out, the equivalents of which are quite different in comparison to Turkish. 28 Evidences for the comprehension of what is read is a considerable number of documents, which have the zero equivalency and which seem to the foreign language learner to be senseless without the knowledge of the German language. The remaining 5 idioms can therefore be assigned to semantic equivalence. In conclusion, it can be said that from these results, idioms should be introduced to the foreign language learners in the foreign language teaching

Kaynakça

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