FUZULİNİN “SIHHAT VE MEREZ” ESERİNDE TASAVVUFİ SİMGELER
"Sıhhat ve Merez" "Hüsnü-aşk" adıyla da biliniyor. Fuzuli bu edebi örnekde hem insanın iç dünyasını tasvir etmiş, hem de sağlık ve hastalığa dair konulara değinmiştir. "Sıhhat ve Merez"de bir çok gizemli konular vardır. Bu nesr eserinde gizemli konulardan da bahs ettim. Göz edebiyatda mistik işaretlerden biridir. Yazar ona kötülük ismini vermiştir. Göz görme dışındaki nazarla ilgilidir. İncilde okuyoruz: " Mağrur gözleri ve gururlu kalbi, kötülerin lambası, günahı vardır. Tasavvufi düşünceye göre önemli amaç dünyevi arzu ve isteklerden vazgeçip nefsi terbiye etmektir. Aşık kişinin aşk yolunda iztirablara katlanması ve mücadele etmesinin temel nedeni bunun sevgiliden gelmesini fark edebilmesidir.Sufizm sembolleri ilk kez bu eserde incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmada Kur'anın semboller üzerine araştırması yer almıştır. Çalışmanın temel amacı Fuzulinin bu semboller üzerinde tasavvufi düşüncesini değerlendirmekdir. Eser dışla ilgili işaretlerin yorumunda oldukça çok ilginçdir. Saç, çizgi, nokta, zarafet, kaşlar, gözler, fiyaka ve güzeller, yüz, kahkaha ve bu tür işaretlerin zahiri anlamı olsa da kendi iç anlamları vardır. Ruhun kendini tanıması ilk önce vücuttan başlar. Beden ülkesinde kendi vücudunu öğrenmeye çalışan ruhun yanında sıhhatin olması da önemli rol oynuyor. Sıhhat beden mülkünün sağlığından haber verir. Ruha yardım edenlerden biri de aşktır. Ruhun aşkla yolculuğuna neden hüsnün varlığıdır. Ruh hüsnün kendisinde olduğunu anlayamadığından aşkın verdiği aynada da onu anlamıyor. Bu nedenle hüsnü aramak kararına geliyor
MYSTICAL SIGNS IN FUZULI’S SIHHAT AND MEREZ
The work is called “Husni-eshg”. In this literal example Fuzuli described inner life of the person, as well as touched issues like health and diseases. There are many mysterious matters in Sıhhat and Maraz. I have touched mystical signs in this prose. Eye is one of mystical signs in literature. The author named it as evil. Because eye is also related evil eye except sight. İn Bible we read : “Haughty eyes and a proud heart, the lamp of the wicked, are sin”. According to the mystical sense, the main goal is to nurture self-worldly dreams and desires refused. According to Sufism the main purpose is to refuse mundane desires and treat passion. The main reason of Lover’s tolerance to agony and fight for it was his understanding that all these come from sweetheart. Sufi symbols researched extensively for the first time in this work. This study has been involved in research on the Qur'an symbols. The main objective of the study was to assess the attitude of these symbols. The work is very interesting interpretation of the meaning of the outward signs. Curl, line, point, grace, eyebrows, eyes, airs and graces, face, laughter and the apparent meaning of such signs, though, are their inner meanings A man consists of a body and soul. The body is a temporary living being made of four factors (soil, weather, water and fire). Nevertheless, the soul is immortal, divine origin soul comprises all characteristics of the God. A man was created by the God and he will return to the God again. In holy verse of the Koran it is noted that “We belong to the God, our return is to him”. So, a long and toilsome way is waiting. The master touched the issue about harmony of matters in the body accurately, as he knew medicine well. Fuzuli shows that the reasons of the diseases in the body are Sevda (Love), Safra (Bile), Gan (Blood) and Balgham (Phlegm). If one of these increases in the body it may cause a disease. This notion which reached to Egypt was conjoined by Egyptian doctors as a disorder of these four matters within the body is a reason of the disease. For the purpose of recovering the body is should be cleaned off dirty matters. The diseases of the body are because of these four matters. Love can cause mental and psychological diseases. Blood diseases are because of the increase or decrease of blood. Bile quantity being more than needed in the gall can cause liver and kidney diseases. When Phlegm is more than norm, it can result with water collection in the stomach. Blood in spring, bile in summer, love in autumn and phlegm in winter step into action. Soul didn’t reach its reflection in the body. After Husn (Huss) influences the Soul its brilliance increases. The reason why Soul couldn’t know itself was that it couldn’t know the reality. Therefore it should pass affection moment. Love creates a bridge and inoculation between universe and the God that passes through neat heart mirror reached to perfection. So, after alast moment of souls where all souls were together, soul which feels strangeness was drawn to trial. Every curl of the hair is one note and paragraph of kasrat world. When node and curl opened the hair lengthens and wise man turns from kasrat to harmony. In the work the people who felt wistful escape with opening of hair curl. In Sufism hair was the sign of darkness and passion, nevertheless Fuzuli didn’t use the hair in that meaning. There are some examples in classical literature as the hair is the curtain or hijab of the face. According to Sufism the main purpose is to refuse mundane desires and treat passion. The main reason of Lover’s tolerance to agony and fight for it was his understanding that all these come from sweetheart. Self acquaintance of the soul begins from body. Existence of Sıhhat (Health) beside the Soul is very important which wants to learn its body in body world. Health gives information about body world. One of those who help Soul is Love. The existence of Husn (Huss) is the reason of joint journey of Soul and Love. As the Soul couldn’t understand the existence of Husn (Huss) inside itself, it couldn’t understand this even when Love gives it a mirror. Therefore, it decides to search for Huss. In Sufism Huss symbolizes the God. Huss was manifested in the God. The way to Huss passes through Love. In spite of that Egl (Wisdom) helped the Soul to recognise its body, the Soul should understand the Huss while recognition of the reality. As for Ibn Arabi moral wisdom is humble in recognition of the God. It is possible to understand only by means of heart. Enlightenment feeling of the heart was indicated in Perse 37 of Gaf sura: “Undoubtedly, there is an advice for those who listen carefully”. Heart is the moral life source. There is a note about moral feelings of the heart in Perse 11 of Najm sura: ئ ً كزب الفو َء ما ا ُد ما رأ 1. Mystical signs: face and eye One of the sufism symbols is face. In Sufism for the signs of light and mercy the face is assimilated with manifestation. The poet in the work matches this with a stingless garden. Fuzuli who calls the eye as “cheshmi-shahla” thought that the people of this area are cunning. In Sufism the eye is a sign of foresight. Eye is also connected with sight and evil eye. Fizuli called the people of this area cunning because of their evil eye. We come across some expressions like fossette, arrow tip and so on concerning with eye. Master gives fossette as a “Murder Fossette” as he called it in his odes. N.Jumshudoghlu evaluates this symbolic meaning as follows: Fossette is a killer, bloodthirsty and murderess. (2007, 180- 181) Lover’s chest and body is full of holes. He searches for recovery, as his wound is caused by fossette, his recovery is expected by it. One of the other symbolic meanings - eyebrow’s closeness with the God is described in the work as follows: “Temple for joyful people, sanctuary for prayers”, “Gaba-Govseyn” ground for lovely huss, its name was “tagi-arbi”. In symbolic meaning the eyebrow is the sign of beauty. It is the sign of gabi-govseyn in Koran, which means closeness with the God. From this point of view master directs the eyebrow to sanctuary and kiblah. In knowledge the line is the omen of majority. Birthmark is the sign of unity. Addiction to line is remaining in natural dreams. Fuzuli describes the places where “Khatt” (Line) and “Khal” (birthmark) are available as cruel and enduring. The reasons of the master’s calling in this way is concerning with momentary wishes of the line. Sufi symbols are found more frequently in the western literary culture. Description as way was used in this project. Signs are also curios to learn mysticism in sufism. The main objective of this article was to determine mystical signs in Sıhhat and Maraz. Although other researchers touched this matter in their works but this research is differentiated new findings.
Göyüşov N. C, Baku:The world of knowledge in Fuzuli’s art, 2007 year, 327 page.
Koran. Necm surah.program of Prof. Dr. Suat Yıldırım, Hasan Basri Kadıköy/ İstanbul, 2010