ÇAĞATAYCA TABERÎ TARİHİ

Çağatay Türkçesi XV. yüzyıldan XX. yüzyıla kadar Orta Asya'da yazı dili olarak kullanılmıştır. Ali Şir Nevâyî ile zirvede olan bu dönemde manzum eserlerin yeri oldukça geniştir. Bu eserlerin yanı sıra pek çok mensur eserler de verilmiştir. Özellikle Buhara Hanlığı döneminden başlayarak tarihnâme yazımına oldukça önem verilmiştir. Buhara Hanlığı'nda Şeybânîler döneminden başlayarak Astrahanî ve Mangıtlar dönemlerinde de bu gelenek sürmüştür. Tarihte hükmetmiş birçok devlet adamı, zaferlerini, halkı için yaptığı hizmetlerini ve döneminin şartlarını gelecek nesillere bildirmek için şiir ve nesir yeteneği güçlü tarihçileri himaye etmiş ve yazma konusunda onları teşvik etmiştir. Bu tarihçiler, bizzat dönemin hükümdarı tarafından görevlendirilen üst düzey devlet adamları veya yeteneği olup kendini göstermek isteyen yahut hükümdarın maddi ve manevi lütfuna mazhar olmak amacında olan kişilerdir. Vakâyînâme denilen bu eserlerde vakanüvisler bazen bizzat savaşlara katılarak, toplumsal olayları yerinde takip etmiş, bazen de bu olayları yaşayan kişilerden bilgiler alarak yazma yolunu seçmişlerdir. Tarih araştırmalarında İslam dünyasında özel bir yere sahip olan Taberî Tarihi adlı eser Ebû Ca'fer Muhammed bin Cerîr bin Yezîd EtTaberî (d. 839/ö. 923) tarafından M. 915-916 yıllarında Arapça olarak yazılmıştır. Eser Sâmânî Emîri I. Mansûr bin Nûh'un emriyle M. 963 yılında veziri Bel'amî tarafından Farsçaya tercüme edilmiştir. Bel'amî, tercüme sırasında senedleri çıkarıp eseri büyük ölçüde kısalttığı gibi İran tarihiyle ilgili bazı bilgileri de kitaba eklemiştir. Bundan dolayı yeni Farsçanın en eski örneği olan bu tercümeye Târîh-i Bel'amî denilmiştir. Bu makalenin konusu Çağatayca araştırmalarında pek fazla bilinmeyen Çağatayca Taberî Tarihi'dir. Çağatayca Taberî Tarihi, Tarih-i Bel'âmî'den Çağatay Türkçesine yapılan bir tercümedir. Yani eser Taberî Tarihi'nin Arapça orijinalinden değil Farsçadan tercümedir. Eser, Şeybânî hükümdarlarından Köçkünçi Han'ın kitabdarı olan Vâhid-i Belhî tarafından Çağatay Türkçesine tercüme edilmiştir. Vâhid-i Belhî, bu tercümeyi Köçkünçi Han'ın oğlu şehzade Abdullatif Han'ın isteği üzerine tercüme etmeye 1521 yılında başlamış ve 1522 yılında tamamlamıştır

CHAGATAI TURKISH TABERIAN HISTORY

Chagatai Turkish was used from 15th centure to the 20th century as a written language in Central Asia. The place of poetic works in this period which have been at the peak with Ali Şir Nevai is quite important. As well as these works, many prose works have been written. Writing “tarihname” has an important place, which especially starts from the Buhara Khanate. This tradition has been continued by starting from Buhara Khanate-Şeybânîs period to the periods of Astrahanî and Mangıts. A lot of governers in history has protected the historians who had the ability to write poems and articles to inform the future generations about victories, situations of thecountry and what they had done for their country. They also encouraged them to write. These historians were who were especially appointed by the rulers of that time or the ones who had ability and wanted to be appriciated by the sovereign. Vakunuvises in their books called “Vakayiname” preferred writing either taking place in wars in person or listening to those who fought in wars. The book “Taberian History” having a special place in the Islamic World was written in Arabic by Ebû Ca‘fer Muhammed bin Cerîr bin Yezîd Et-Taberî in the years of 915-916. It was translated in to Persian in 963 by Belami the vizier of Samani Emir-1st Mansur bin Nuh. During translation while Belami shortens the book substantially by taking out the source its equivalent in Ahoic is sened, he also adds some information about the history of Persia. Because of that reason, this translation which is the oldest sample of new Persian was called “Tarihi Bel’ami”. The topic of this article is the Chagatai Taberi History which is not fully known in Chagatai researches. Chatai Taberi History is a translation from Tarih-i Belami to Chatai Turkish. As it can be understood, this work is a translation from Persian, not from its original language Arabic. The work has been translated into Chagatai Turkish by Vahid-i Belhi, librarian of Köçkünçi Khan-one of the Şeybani sovereigns. Vahid-i Belhi started to translate it in 1521 at the request of Abdullatif Khan, the son of Kökünçi Khan and completed it in 1522. Chagatai Turkish was used from 15th centure to the 20th century as a written language in Central Asia. The place of poetic works in this period which have been at the peak with Ali Şir Nevai is quite important. As well as these works, many prose works have been written. Writing “tarihname” has an important place, which especially starts from the Buhara Khanate. This tradition has been continued by starting from Buhara Khanate-Şeybânîs period to the periods of Astrahanî and Mangıts. A lot of governers in history has protected the historians who had the ability to write poems and articles to inform the future generations about victories, situations of thecountry and what they had done for their country. They also encouraged them to write. These historians were who were especially appointed by the rulers of that time or the ones who had ability and wanted to be appriciated by the sovereign. Vakunuvises in their books called “Vakayiname” preferred writing either taking place in wars in person or listening to those who fought in wars. The book “Taberian History” having a special place in the Islamic World was written in Arabic by Ebû Ca‘fer Muhammed bin Cerîr bin Yezîd Et-Taberî in the years of 915-916. It was translated in to Persian in 963 by Belami the vizier of Samani Emir-1st Mansur bin Nuh. During translation while Belami shortens the book substantially by taking out the source its equivalent in Ahoic is sened, he also adds some information about the history of Persia. Because of that reason, this translation which is the oldest sample of new Persian was called “Tarihi Bel’ami”. The topic of this article is the Chagatai Taberi History which is not fully known in Chagatai researches. Chatai Taberi History is a translation from Tarih-i Belami to Chatai Turkish. As it can be understood, this work is a translation from Persian, not from its original language Arabic. The work has been translated into Chagatai Turkish by Vahid-i Belhi, librarian of Köçkünçi Khan-one of the Şeybani sovereigns. Vahid-i Belhi started to translate it in 1521 at the request of Abdullatif Khan, the son of Kökünçi Khan and completed it in 1522. Translator informs us about why and when it’s translated into Turkish on the first and last pages of the work, which shows us that Sultans of that period has a tendency into Turkish. Taberi History has many well-known translations in Anatolia. Some of these are translated from Arabic and some from Persian. Husamettin Çelebi starts to translate Belami’s Taberi History in 710(1310) from Belami’s Persian translation on Zilhicce 881/19th March, 1477 to Turkish. In 1520, at the request of Kanuni, Matrukçu Nasuh translated the book from its original language, Arabic, with the name of Mecmaü’t-Tevarih. Nasuh writes about the events up to Kanuni period by making some additions. While “TaberiTarihi” was translated into Chagatai Turkish in 16th century, in Middle Asia, it was translated into the Anatolian Turkish long before the 14th century in Anatolia. Chagatai “Taberi Tarihi”, an issue of this article, is regristered to Russian National Library. The work starts with some information as an introduction. This section is 9 folios. It consist of 819 folios except from the introduction part including 9 folios. It starts with 1B and ends with 819A. It has been writing using naskh style of writing, but Arabic Ayahs and Arabic specific names have been written with thuluth. At the beginning of the work, Hz.Adam (As) and Hz. Noah (As) period with the subsequent big states have been talked about shortly. The geneology of those sultans with the dates of throne-period and their deaths has been situated in the book in detail. These big states are divided into pre-and post- processing of İslam. What takes the attention here is that it includes the states and events after 915. We know that Ebu Cafer in his work talks about the event till 915. It has been understood that the part before the incroduction part including the Great Seljuks and Hasan Sabbah has been added by the translater Vahid-i Belhi. When we compare Chagatai Taberi Tarihi and the one simplified from Ottoman Turkish, we see some differences. We see that though there are several titles in Taberi Tarihi in Ottoman Turkish, it is gothered under one title in the one with Chagatai, but because of this gathering, the content has not been shortened. Besides, Vahid-i Belhi has taken out some stories completely. One of the differences between two translations is that some specific names have been written in quite different identifications as well. When we look at tafsir and history books, it’s seen that proper names have been written with small differences. While the names in the book “Taberi Tarihi” with Western Turkish can be easily found in other tafsir books, those names have been changed distinctively in Chagatai Taberi Tarihi. For example, although the name of Hz.Yusuf’s mother has been stated as Rahil in the translations with Western Turkish, it has been stated as Hil in Chagatai Taberi Tarihi. Also the name of the one of the most skillful fortunetellers of Pharoh Period has been situated as Musayfi in the Western Turkish Taberi Tarihi, it has been used as Musagger in Chagatai Taberi Tarihi. The book shows the features of Classical Chagatai Turkish in terms of language. In terms of writing style, it continues the feature of Eastern Turkish. In Turkish words, the letters of “elif”, “vav”, “ye” and “he” have been used for the wovels. “Sad” and “tı” have not been used in Turkish words. We can sometimes see some miswritings. In terms at words, it’s a quite rich book. Some grammar features between 69a-119b are like those: The suffix inconsistency we see in Chagatai Turkish is also seen in Chagatai Taberi Tarihi. This inconsistency is at different levels in Chagatai texts. While we see this the suffix inconsistency in 3-5 suffixes in some texts, it goes up to 10-15 suffixes in other texts. Possessive suffixes are rarely used as –nı, -ni. In terms of verbs and verb conjugation, it is quite rich. In terms of phonology, there are so many elements. There are many Arabic and Persian elements. It’s not faced with question suffixes “mı” “mi” “mu” “mü”. Question is understood from context. For example, “Ibrahim ayttı: Men hem yine eki yılda mundak bolgay-men? Ayttı: Ari.” “Abraham said: I will be like this in two years? He said: Yes.”. Such examples are met a lot. “Yok” word used to mean sometimes the meaning of “değil(not)”. For example “Yahşi aytmak dostlar bilen kılgaylar, yok düşmenler bilen.” A friendly speech is done with true friends, not with enemies.

Kaynakça

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Kaynak Göster