Influence of Adding Garlic (Allium sativum), Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and Their Combination on the Growth Performance, HaematoImmunological Parameters and Disease Resistance to Photobacterium damselae in Sobaity Sea Bream (Sparidentex hasta) Fry

The present study was aimed at determining the effects of medicinal herbs adjuvants on growth, hematoebiochemical parameters, some non-specific immunity and disease resistance to Photobacterium damselae in Sobaity sea bream (Sparidentex hasta). The fish (mean body weight 3.08±0.31 g) were fed fishmeal diets supplemented with either 1% of Garlic (Allium sativum), 1% supplemented of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), 1% supplemented of thyme (Thymus vulgaris), a mixture of these herbs (1% Garlic + 1% Ginger + 1% thyme), and control diet without medicinal herbs, for 8 weeks. The highest weight gains (WG %) and the specific growth rate (SGR) were in fish that fed diets with the mixture of three medicinal herbs (P

Kaynakça

Abdel‐Tawwab, M., Ahmad, M.H., Seden, M.E.A., & Sakr, S.F.M. (2010). Use of green tea, Camellia sinensis L., in practical diet for growth and protection of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 41(S2), 203-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.2010.00360.x

Abdelwahab, A.M., & El-Bahr, S. (2012). M.Influence of Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa) and Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) Mixture on Performanceand Serum Biochemistry of Asian Sea Bass, Lates calcarifer. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 4(5), 496-503.

Ahamad, M.H., El Mesallamy, A.M.D., Samir, F., & Zshran, F. (2011). Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on growth performance, feed utilization, whole body composition and resistance to Aeromunas hydrophilainnile tilapia. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 23, 289-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2011.626350

Akrami, R., Iri, Y., Khoshbavar Rostami, H., & Razeghi Mansour, M. (2013). Effect of dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth performance, survival, lactobacillus bacterial population and hemato-immunological parameters of stellate sturgeon (Acipenserstellatus) juvenile. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 35, 1235-1239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2013.07.039

Akrami, R., Gharaei, A., Razeghi Mansour, M., & Galeshi, A. (2015). Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hematoebiochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 45, 828-834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2015.06.005

Ai, Q., Xu, H., Mai, K., Xu, W., Wang, J., & Zhang, W. (2011). Effects of dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance, survival, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker, Larimichthyscrocea. Aquaculture, 317, 155-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.04.036.

Al-Salahy, M.B. (2002). Some physiological studies on the effect of onion and garlic juices on the fish, Clarias lazera. Fish Physiology & Biochemistry, 27, 129-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:FISH.0000021913.60189.76

Austin, B., & Austin, D.A. (1993). Vibrionaceae representatives. In: Laird LM (ed) Bacterial fish pathogens: (Ellis Horwood Ltd. Chichester, England), p. 265–294.

Alishahi, M., Ranjbar, M.M., Ghorbanpour, M., Peyghan, R., & Mesbah, M., (2010). Effects of Dietary Aloe vera on Some Specific and Nonspecific Immunity in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Int. J. Vet. Res (International Journal of Veterinary Research), 3, 189-195.

Ardó, L., Yin, G., Xu, P., Váradi, L., Szigeti, G., Jeney, Z., & Jeney, G. (2008). Chinese herbs (Astragalus membranaceus and Lonicera japonica) and boron enhancethe non-specific immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquaculture, 275 (1–4), 26–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.12.022

Banaee, M., Keyhani, E., & Ahmadi, K. (2013). Effect 2, 4-de chlorophenoxy Acetic Acid on some Biochemical and Histopathological parameter on the gill and liver tissues of (Poeciliasphenops). Exploitation & Aquaculture, 3, 77-98.

Bekcan, S., Dogankaya, L., & Cakirogullari, G.C. (2006). Growth and body composition of European Catfish (Silurusglanis) fed diet containing different percentages of protein, Israeli Journal Aquaculture Bamidgeh, 58, 137-142.

Borges, A., Scotti, L.V., Siqueira, D.R., Jurinitz, D.F., & Wassermann, G.F. (2004). Hematologic and serum biochemical values for jundia (Rhamdiaquelen), Fish Physiology & Biochem, 30, 21-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-004-5000-1

Binaii, M., Ghiasi, M., Farabi, S.M.V., Pourgholam, R., Fazli, H., Safari, R., Alavi, S.E., Taghavi, M.J., & Bankehsaz, Z. (2014). Biochemical and hemato - immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urticadioica), Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 36, 46 - 51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.001

Carpenter, K.E., Krupp, F., & Jones, D.A. (1997). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of Kuwait, Eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Cerezuela, R., Cuesta, A., Meseguer, J., & Esteban, M.A. (2008). Effects of inulin on gilthead seabream (Sparusaurata) innate immune parameters, Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 24, 663-668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2007.10.002

Chen, X., Wu, Z., Yin, J., & Li, L. (2003). Effects of four species of herbs on immune function of Carassius auratus gibelio. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 10, 36-40 (in Chinese).

Chrubasik, S., Pittler, M.H., & Roufogalis, B.D. (2005). Zingiberisrhizoma: a comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles. Phytomedicine, 12, 684-701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2004.07.009

Choi, S.H., Park, K.H., Yoon, T.J., Kim, J.B., Jang, Y.S., & Choe, C.H. (2008). Dietary Korean mistele to enhance cellular non-specific immune responses and survival of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 24, 67-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2007.08.007

Christine Reinbach, H., Martinussen, T., & Møller, P. (2010). Effects of hot spices on energy intake, appetite and sensory specific desires in humans, Food Quality and Preference, 21, 655–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2010.04.003

Christybapita, D., Divyagnaneswari, M., & Michael, R.D. (2007). Oral administration of Eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 23, 840- 852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2007.03.010

Collier, H.B. (1944). The standardization of blood hemoglobin determinations, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 50, 550-552.

Dineshkumar, G., Rajakumar, R., & Mani, P. (2014). Immuostimulant effect of on Eichornia crassipes (MART.) solms against P. fluorescens infected indian Major carp Labeo rohita (HAM). European Journal of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, 1(5), 158-164.

Dorman, H.J.D., & Deans, S.G. (2000). Antimicrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88, 308-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.x.

Düğenci, S.K., Arda, N., & Candan, A. (2003). Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 88, 99-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00182-X.

El-Bahr, S.M., & Saad, T.T. (2008). Effect of Blackcumin seeds (Nigella sativa) and/or Turmeric (Curcumin) on hematological, biochemical andimmunological parameters of Mugil cephalus fish vaccinated with Aeromonus hydrophila bacterin, In the 13 Scientific Congress, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, pp. 365-388.

El-Feki, M.A., Tawfek, N.S., & Awad, E.M. (1993). Ulcerative dermal necrosis (UDN). A freshwater fish disease. VIII. Haematological studies. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Toxicology, 10, 25–28.

Ellis, A.E. (1990). Lysozyme assays. In: Stolen JS, Fletcher TC, Anderson DP, Roberson BS, Van Muiswinkel WB, editors. Techniques in fish immunology, SOS Publications, p. 101–3.

El-Tahir, K.E., Ashour, M.M., & Al –Harbi, M.M. (1993). The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in guinea pigs: Elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. General Pharmacology, 24, 1115–1122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(93)90358-5

Fujioka, R.S., Greco, S.B., Cates, M.B., & Schroeder, J.P. (1988). Vibrio damselae from wounds inbottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms Journal, 4, 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao004001

Gabor, E.F., Şara, A., Benţea, M., Creţa, C., & Baciu, A. (2012). The Effect of Phytoadditive Combination and Growth Performances and Meat Quality in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhychus mykiss). Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 45 (2), 43- 47. Galindo-Villegas,J., & Hosokawa, H. (2004). Immunostimulants: towards temporary prevention of diseases inmarine fish. In: Cruz Suarez LE, RicqueMarie D, Nieto Lopez, MG, Villarreal D, Scholz U, Gonzalez M (Eds.), Avances en Nutricion Acuicola VII. Memorias Del VII SimposiumInternacional de Nutricion Acuicola, 16– 19. Hermosillo, Sonora.

Gauthier, G., Gauthier, M., & Christen, R. (1995). Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, and Moritella using genes coding forsmall-subunit rRNA sequences and division of the genus Alteromonas into two genera, Alteromonas (emended) and Pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and proposal of twelve new species combinations. International journal of systematic bacteriology, 45, 755–761. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00207713-45-4-755

Ghiasi, F., Mirzargar, S.S., Badakhshan, H., & Shamsi, S. (2010). Effects of low concentration of cadmium on the level of lysozyme in serum, leukocyte count and phagocytic index in Cyprinus carpio under the wintering conditions, Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 5, 113-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jfas.2010.113.119

Gholipour Kanani, H., Nobahar, Z., Kakoolaki, S., & Jafarian, H. (2014). Effect of ginger and garlic- supplemented diet on growth performance, some hematological parameters and immune responses in juvenile Huso huso, Fish Physiology & Biochemical, 40, 481-490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-013-9859-6

Grimes, D.J, Stemmler, J., Hada, H., May, E.B., Maneval, D., Hetrick, F.M., Jones, R.T., Stoskopf, M., & Colwell, R.R. (1984). Vibrio species associated with mortality of sharks held incaptivity. Microbial Ecology Journal, 10, 271 – 282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02010940

Gültepe, N., Bilen, S., Yılmaz, S., Güroy, D., & Aydın, S. (2014). Effects of herbs and spice on health status of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) challenged with Streptococcus iniae. Journal Acta Veterinaria Brno, 83, 125–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.2754/avb201483020125

Han, J.L., Lawson Han, G., & Han, P. (1995). Spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of allinc in and total garlic thiosolfinates. Analytical Biochemistry, 225, 157-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1995.1124

Harikrishnan, R., Balasundaramb, C., & Heo, M.S. (2010). Herbal supplementation diets on hematology and innate immunity in goldfish (Carassius auratus) against Aeromonas hydrophila, Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 28, 354-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2009.11.013

Haghighi, M., & Sharif Rohani, M. (2013). The effects of powdered ginger (Zingiber officinale) on the haematological and immunological parameters of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Medicinal Plant and Herbal Therapy Research, 1, 8-12.

Helander, I.M., Alakomi, H.L., Latva-Kala, K., Mattila- Sandholm, T. & Pol, I. (1998). Characterization of the action of selected essential oil components on gram- negative bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 3590-3595. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf980154m

Hori, Y., Miura, T., Hirai, Y., Fukumura, M., Nemoto, Y., Toriizuka, K., & Ida, Y. (2003). Pharmacognostic studies on ginger and related drugs-part 1: five sulfonated compounds from Zingiberis rhizome(Shokyo). Phytochemical, 62, 613-617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00618-0

Hosseini Mansoub, N., & Pooryousef Myandoab, M. (2012) Effect of dietary inclusion of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) on performance and some blood metabolites of Japanese quail. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences, 2(1), 7-9.

Hussain, NA., Akatsu, S., & El-Zahr, C. (1981). Spawning, Egg and Early Larval Development and Growth of Acanthopagrus cuvieri. Aquaculture, 22, 125-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(81)90139-3

Immanuel, G., Vicncybai, V.C., Sivaram, V., Palavesam, A., & Marian, M.P. (2004). Effect of butanolic extracts from terrestrial herbs and seaweed on the survival, growth and pathogen (Vibrio parahaemolyticus) load on shrimp Penaesindicus juveniles. Aquaculture, 236, 53–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2003.11.033

Ispir, U., & Dörücü, M. (2005). A Study on the Effects of Levamisole on the Immune System of Rainbow (Oncorhynchusmykiss) Trout. Turk. Veterinary and Animal Science, 29, 1169- 1176.

Jameel, Y.J., Abed, A.R., & Al-Shimmary, F.O. (2014). Influence of adding garlic and thyme and their combination on immune respons and some blood parameters in broiler. International journal of advanced biological research, 4(2), 211-215.

Ji, S.C., Takaoka, O., Jeong, G.S., Lee, S.W., Ishimaru, K., Seoka, M., & Takii, K. (2007). Dietary medicinal herbs improve growth and some non-specific immunity of red sea bream Pagrus major, Fisheries Science, 73, 63–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-2906.2007.01302.x

Jian, J., & Wu, Z. (2003). Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity and disease resistance of large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson). Aquaculture, 218, 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00192-8

Jian, J., & Wu, Z. (2004). Influences of traditional Chinese medicine on nonspecific immunity of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 16, 185-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1050-4648(03)00062-7

Khalil, R.H., Nadia, B.M., & Soliman, M.K. (2001). Effects of Biogen and Levamisol Hcl on the immune response of cultured Oreochromis niloticus to Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine. Beni-Suef Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, Egypt XI, 2, 381-392.

Kim, J.H., Moon, Y.B., Jeong, C.H., & Kim, D.S. (2000). Utilization of dietary Obosan -III. Growth of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. J. Aquacult, 13, 231–238.

Kim, D.S., Noh, C.H., Jung, S.W., & Jo, J.Y. (1998). Effect of Obosan supplemented diet on growth, feed conversion ratio and body composition of nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. J. Aquacult, 11, 83–90.

Kim, J.H., Lee, S.M., Baek, J.M., Cho, J.K., & Kim, D.S. (2003). Effect of dietary lipid level and herb mixture on growth of parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus. J. Korean Fish. Soc, 36, 113–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.5657/kfas.2003.36.2.113

Klesius, P.H. (1990). Effect of size and temperature on the quantity of immunoglobulin in Channel catfish Ictaluruspunctatus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 24(2), 187–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(90)90021-J

Magnadóttir, B., Jónsdóttir, H., Helgason, S., Bjőrnsson, B., Jørgensen, T.Ø., & Pilstrom, L. (1999). Humoral immune parameters of Atlantic cod (Gadusmorhua L.). II. The effects of size and gender under different environmental conditions. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology, 122(2), 181–188.

Magnadóttir, B. (2006). Innate immunity of fish (overview). Fish & Shell fish Immunology, 20,137–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2004.09.006

Martins, M.L., Tavares-Dias, M., Fujimoto, R.Y., Onaka, E.M., & Nomura, D.T. (2004). Haematological alterations of Leporinus macrocephalus (Osteichtyes: Anostomidae) naturally infected by Goezialeporini (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in fish ponds, Arq. Bras. Med. Veterin _aria Zootec, 56, 640-646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-9352004000500011

Martins, M.L., Mouriño, J.L.P., Fezer, G.F., Buglione Neto, C.C., Garcia, P., Silva, B.C., … & Vieira, F.N. (2010). Isolation and experimental infection with Vibrio alginolyticus in the sea horse, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae) in Brazil. Braz. J. Biology, 70(1), 205-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-9842010000100028

McLord, J.M., & Fridovich, I. (1969). Superoxide dismutase: an enzymatic function for erythrocuprein, J. Biol. Chemical, 244, 6049-6055.

Mc Devitt, D.E., Hillman, R.M., Acamovic, K., & Cross, T. (2007). The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut micro flora in chickens from 7-28 days of age. Br. Poult. Science. 48, 496-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071660701463221

Metaxa, E., Deviller, G., Pagand, P., Alliaume, C., Casellas, C., & Blancheton, J.P., )2006(. High rate algal pond treatment for water reuse in a marine fish recirculation: water purification and fish health. Aquaculture, 252, 92-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.11.053

Morris, J.G., Wilson, J.R., Hollis, D.G., Weaver, R.E., Miller, H.G., Tacket, C.O., Hickman, F.W., & Blake, P.A. (1982). Illness caused by Vibrio damselae and Vibrio hollisae. Lancet I, 1291-1297.

Misra, C.K., Das, B.K., Mukherjee, S.C., & Meher, P.K. (2006). The Immunomodulatory Effects of Tuftsin on the Non-specific Immune System of Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 20, 728-738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2005.09.004

Naseri, F., Abedian Amiri, A., Hosseini, M., Heidarzadeh, M., Zahedi, R., & Arabzadeh, P. (2014). Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Photobacterium damselae, a pathogenof the grey mullet Mugil cephalus, in Iran. International Journal of Advanced Life Sciences (IJALS), 7, 3, 452-462.

Nya, E.J., & Austin, B. (2009). Use of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Disease, 32, 971-977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2009.01101.x

Otunola, G.A., Oloyede, O.B., Oladiji, A.T., & Afolayan, A.J. (2010). Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices Allium sativum L. Zingiber officinale Rosc. And Capsicum frutescens L. commonly consumed in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 6927–6931.

Platel, K., & Srinivasan, K. (2004). Digestive stimulant action of spices: A myth or reality, Indian Journal of Medical Reaserch, 119,167-179.

Picchietti, S., Scapigliati, G., Fanelli, M., Barbato, F., Canese, S., Mastrolia, L., Mazzini, M., & Abelli, L. (2001). Sex-related variations of serum immunoglobulins during reproduction in gilthead sea bream and evidence for a transfer from the females to the eggs. Journal of Fish Biology, 59, 1503–1511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-649.2001.tb00215.x

RAIS-Regional Aquaculture Information System for the Gulf Region. (2009). Annual aquaculture statistics. Available at: http://www.raisaquaculture.net [accessed March 18, 2009].

Rao, Y.V., Das, B.K., Jyotyrmayee, P., & Chakrabarti, R. (2006). Effect of Achyranthes aspera on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 20, 263– 273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2005.04.006

Romalde, J.L. (2002). Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida: an integrated view of a bacterial fish pathogen. Int Microbiol. Mar, 5(1), 3-9.

Saad, T.T., Abou El-Geit, E.N., El-Hammady, A.K.I., & Mona S. (2013). Effect of Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella Sativa) and / or Turmeric (Curcumin) On Hematological, Biochemical and Immunological Parameters of Sea Bass Vaccinated with Pseudomonas Fluorescence Bacterin. Life Sci. J, 10(2), 1292-1303. http://dx.doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v16_1_20

Sasaki, J.I. (2006). Bioactive Phytocompounds and Products Traditionally Used in Japan. In: Ahmad, I., Aqil, F. and Owais, M., Eds., Modern Phytomedicine: Turning Medicinal Plantsinto Drugs, Wiley, Weinheim, 79-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9783527609987.ch4

Satchell, G.H. (1991). The blood. Physiology and form of fish circulation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 59–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511983719.005.

Secombes, C.J. (1996). The Non-Specific Immune System: Cellular Defenses. In: The Fish Immune System: Organism, Pathogens and Environment, Iwama, G. and T. Nakanishi (Eds.). Academic Press, San Diego CA, 63-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1546-5098(08)60272-1

Shahsavani, D., Mohri, M., & Gholipour Kanani, H. (2010). Determination of normalvalues of some blood serum enzymes in Acipenserstellatus Pallas, Fish Physiology & Biochemical, 36, 39-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-008-9277-3

Shalaby, A.M., Khattab, Y.A., & Abdel Rahman, A.M. (2006). Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile Tilapia immunostimulants for fish. Journal of Ethnopharamacology, 88, 99–106.

Shirin, P.R., & Prakash, J. (2010). Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4, 2674–2679. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR09.464

Sivaram, V., Babu, M.M., Immanuel, G., Murugadass, S., Citarasu, T., & Marian, M.P. (2004). Growth and immune response of juvenile greasy groupers (Epinephelustauvina) fed with herbal antibacterial active principle supplemented diets against Vibrio harveyi infections. Aquaculture, 237, 9–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.03.014

Siwicki, A.K., & Anderson, D.P. (1993). Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms Assay in Fish: II. Potential Killing Activity of Neutrophils and Macrophages, Lysozyme Activityin Serum and Organs and Total Immunoglobulin Level in Serum. Fish Disease Diagnosis and Prevention Methods, pp. 105e112 (Olsztyn, Poland).

Snieszko, S.F., Bullock, G.L., Hollis, E., & Boone, J.G. (1964). Pasteurella sp. from an epizootic of white perch (Roccus americanus) in Chesapeake Bay tidewater areas. J. Bacteriol, 88, 1814 -1815.

Srivastava, K.C. (1984). Aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger inhibit platelet aggregation and alter arachidonic acid metabolism. Biomed Biochim Acta 43(8-9), 335–346

Şahan, A., Özütok, S., & Kurutaş, E. B. (2016). Determination of Some Hematological Parameters and Antioxidant Capacity in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) Fed Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) to Aeromonas hydrophila. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 16(1), 197-204.

Tahery Kondor, O., Sajjadi, M.M., Sorynezhad, I., Daryaee, A., & Mirzade, G.H. (2013). Khademi, F. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance and survival of sobaity sea bream, Sparidentex hasta. Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 3, 35-45.

Talpur, A.D., Ikhwanuddin, M., & Bolong, A.M.A. (2013). Nutritional effects on ginger (Zingiber officinal Roscoe) on immune response of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and disease resistance against Vibrio harveyi. Aquaculture, 400, 46-52.

Venkataramalingam, K., Godwin, C.J., & Citarasu, T. (2007). Zingiber officinalis, an herbal appetizer in the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) larviculture. Aquaculture Nutrition, 13, 439-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2007.00495.x

Verma, S.K., Singh, J., Khamesra, R., & Bordia, A. (1993). Effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in man. The Indian journal of medical research, 98, 240-242

Weidner, M.S., & Sigwart, K. (2000) The safety of a ginger extract in the rat. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 73(3), 513–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00340-8

Yano, T., Hatayama, Y., Matsuyama, H., & Nakao, M. (1988). Titration of the alternative complement pathway activity of represent ativecultured fishes. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 54, 1049–1054. http://dx.doi.org/10.2331/suisan.54.1049

Yeomans, M.R., Gray, R.W., Mitchell, C.J., & True, S. (1997). Independent effects of palatability and within-meal pauses on intake and appetite ratings in human volunteers. Appetite, 29(1), 61-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/appe.1997.0092

Yin, G., Ardó, L., Thompson, K.D., Adams, A., Jeney, Z., & Jeney, G. (2009). Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 26(1), 140–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2008.08.015.

Yılmaz, S., & Ergün, S. (2012). Effects of Garlic and Ginger Oils on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 24, 219-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08997659.2012.711266

Yuan, C., Li, D., Chen, W., Sun, F., Wu, G., Gong, Y., Tang, J., Shen, M., & Han, X. (2007). Administration of herbal immunoregulation mixture enhances some immune parameters in carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish Physiology & Biochemistery, 33, 93–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-006-9120-7

Zakes, Z., Kowalska, A., Demska-Zakes, K., Jeney, G., & Jeney, Z. (2008). Effect of two medicinal herbs (Astragalus radix and Lonicera japonica) on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile pikeperch [Sander lucioperca (L.)]. Aquaculture Research, 39, 1149-1160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01977.x

Zaki, M.A., Labib, E.M., Nour, A.M., Tonsy, H.D., & Mahmoud, S.H. (2012). Effect of some medicinal plants diet on mono sex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), growth performance, feed utilization and physiological parameters. Asia- Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society, 220-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2012.11.037

Zarate, R., & Yeoman, M.M. (1996). Change in the amounts of gingerol and derivatives during a culture cycle of ginger, Zingiber officinale. Plant Sciences,121 (1), 115-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(96)04512-8

Kaynak Göster