Nazi Almanya’sında Yayıncılık, Nazizm İdeolojisinin Yaydığı Anti-Semitist Söylemlerin İnşası ve Kitapların Propaganda Amaçlı Kullanımı

Öz 30 Ocak 1933 tarihinde Nazilerin Almanya’da iktidara gelişi, ülkede yayıncılık alanında radikal değişimlerin yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Nazi rejimi, kendileri için tehdit olarak değerlendirdikleri yayınları sansürlemiş, diğer yandan ülkedeki kütüphaneler üzerinde sıkı bir denetim uygulamıştır. Nazilerin, Almanya’daki yayıncılık üzerindeki etkisi, Alman Öğrenci Birliği’nin (Deutsche Studentenschaft, DSt) katılımında gerçekleşen kitap yakma (Bücherverbrennung) kampanyasıyla simgeleşmiştir. Nazilerin kitap yakma kampanyasında, zararlı olarak nitelendirilen veya Nazizm ideolojine karşıt ideolojileri temsil eden kitaplar hedef alınmıştır. Nazizm ideolojisine karşıt yayınların ortadan kaldırılmasının yanında Nazizm ideolojisini yücelten ve fikirlerinin Alman toplumu tarafından benimsenmesini amaçlayan yayınlar da ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu yayınlar içerisinde Nazizm ideolojisinin antisemitist söylemlerinin yer aldığı kitaplar da olmuştur. Çalışmada Nazi rejiminin, Nazizm ideolojisinin antisemitist söylemlerinin kitlelere benimsetilmesinde kitapları propaganda amaçlı nasıl kullandığı Yeşil Fundalıkta Tilkiye ve Yemininde Yahudiye Güvenme (Trau keinem Fuchs auf grüner Heid und keinem Jud auf seinem Eid) adlı kitap özelinde ele alınmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında kitapta yer alan görsel ve yazılı göstergeler, Karl Bühler’in Organon Modeli ve Claude Lévi-Strauss’un İkili Karşıtlıklar Modeli özelinde göstergebilim yöntemi kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Çalışmada kitapta Yahudilerin Alman toplumunda istenmeyen kişiler olduğuna, ötekileştirildiklerine ve dışlandıklarına yönelik algıların meydana getirildiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Bu şekilde elde edilen bulgular ışığında kitap üzerinden Nazizm ideolojisine ait antisemitist söylemlerin Alman toplumunda benimsetilmeye çalışıldığına yönelik çıkarımda bulunulabilmektedir.

Kaynakça

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Kaynak Göster

APA Erol, E . (2020). Nazi Almanya’sında Yayıncılık, Nazizm İdeolojisinin Yaydığı Anti-Semitist Söylemlerin İnşası ve Kitapların Propaganda Amaçlı Kullanımı . Türk Kütüphaneciliği , 34 (4) , 693-722 . DOI: 10.24146/tk.818460