Likbez Kampanyası Dönemindeki Propaganda Posterleri Üzerine Göstergebilimsel Bir İnceleme

1917 yılında gerçekleşen Ekim Devrimi’nden sonra Rusya’da iktidar, Vladimir Lenin liderliğindeki Bolşeviklerin eline geçmektedir. Ekim Devrimi’nden iki yıl sonra 26 Aralık 1919 tarihinde Lenin’in yönetiminde “Nüfus Arasında Cehaletin Ortadan Kaldırılması” (ликвида́ция безгра́мотности у населения) başlığında, Likbez (Ликбез) kısa adıyla Rusya’da okuryazarlık kampanyası başlatılmakta ve kampanyayla birlikte ülkede eğitim düzeyinin yükseltilmesine yönelik yoğun bir çaba sarf edilmektedir. Özellikle kampanya kapsamında kitap okumasının teşvik edilmesine ve kitlelerin okuma alışkanlığının gelişmesine yönelik propaganda faaliyetleri gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu aşamada dönemin önde gelen kitle iletişim araçlarından biri olan propaganda posterlerinden yararlanılmaktadır. Çalışmada Lenin döneminde başlatılan Likbez’de kitlelerin kitap okumasının teşvik edilmesi sürecinde propaganda posterlerinden ne şekilde yaralanıldığının ve hangi mesajların verildiğinin ortaya konulması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu amaçla çalışmada kota örneklemi kullanılarak belirlenen 9 propaganda posteri, Rus dilbilimci Roman Jakobson’un göstergebilim kavramları ışığında analiz edilmektedir. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgularda kitap okuyan insanların mutlu ve huzurlu bir yaşama sahip olacağına yönelik algıların oluşturulmaya çalışıldığı, diğer yandan kitap okumanın Komünizm ideolojisiyle yakınlaşmanın bir yolu olarak sunulduğu ortaya çıkarılmaktadır.

The Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin came to power in Russia passes after the October Revolution in 1917. A literacy campaign was launched in Russia under the title of "Elimination of Ignorance Among the Population" (ликвида́ция безгра́мотности у населения), with the short name Likbez (Ликбез) and with the campaign, an intense effort was made to raise the level of education in the country under the leadership of Lenin on December 26, 1919, two years after the October Revolution. Especially within the scope of the campaign, propaganda activities were carried out to encourage reading books and to develop the reading habits of the masses. At this stage, propaganda posters, one of the leading mass media tools of the period, were used. In the study, it was aimed to reveal how the propaganda posters were used and what messages were given in the process of encouraging the masses to read books in Likbez, which was initiated during the Lenin period. For this purpose, 9 propaganda posters determined by using quota sampling were analyzed in the light of the semiotics concepts of the Russian linguist Roman Jakobson. In the findings of the study, it was revealed that the perceptions that people who read books would have a happy and peaceful life were tried to be formed, on the other hand, reading was presented as a way of getting closer to the Communism ideology.

Kaynakça

Abendroth, M. (2014). Rebel Literacy: Cuba's national literacy campaign and critical global citizenship. The United States: Litwin Books.

Akinde, C. O., ve Omolewa, M. (1982). Background issues relating to the proposed Mass Literacy Campaign in Nigeria. International Review of Education, 28(1), 71-93. doi.org/10.1007/BF00597759

Amare, G. (2006). An appraisal of the literacy campaign in Ethiopia during the military regime, 1974-1991. Journal of Ethiopian Studies, 39(1/2), 93-117.

Angus, E. (1980). The awakening of a people: Nicaragua's Literacy Campaign. Two Thirds, 2(3), 6-32.

Аракелова, М. П. (1994). Ликвидация неграмотности среди женщин в первой половине 20-х годов. Социологические исследования, (3), 75-78.

Arıca, F. A. (2019). Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti’nde Mao Zedong Döneminde Spor Yayıncılığı Üzerine İnceleme. TRT Akademi, 4(8), 392-408.

Avcı, Ö. (2018). Propaganda Çeşitleri. Mustafa Karaca, Caner Çakı. (Ed.) İletişim ve Propaganda (75-114). Konya: Eğitim Yayınevi.

Azab, S. A. (1985). The national adult literacy campaign in Iraq. Prospects, 15(3), 383-387. doi.org/10.1007/BF02196640

Васеха, М. В. (2018). "Крестьянка грамотная": ликбез в Западной Сибири и конструирование нового паттерна женского поведения в 1920-е годы. Вестник Новосибирского государственного университета. Серия: История. Филология, 17(5), 150-160.

Badiane, F. (1983). The literacy campaign in Senegal. Educafrica: Bulletin of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Africa, (9), 192-198.

Barrington, L. (2005). Education, literacy, training, and propaganda in a Ghanaian border town. Ghana Studies, 8(1), 3-38.

Bradley, J. (2012). The St. Petersburg Literacy Committee and Russian education: government tutelage or public trust?. The Russian Review, 71(2), 267-294. doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9434.2012.00653.x

Braimoh, D. (1983). Communication strategies for effective literacy campaign in Nigeria. Nigeria Magazine, (145), 16-27.

Budd, A. M. (2018). Marksist teoriye bir katkı: Rusya'da devlet kapitalizmi teorisi. Enternasyonal Sosyalizm, 1(2), 74-83.

Сажина, А. И. (2012). Ликвидация неграмотности в Забайкалье в условиях ДВР (1920-1922 гг.). Вестник Забайкальского государственного университета, (10), 12-16.

Clark, C. E. (1995). Literacy and labour: The Russian literacy campaign within the trade unions, 1923–27. Europe-Asia Studies, 47(8), 1327-1341.

Clark, C. E. (2000). Uprooting otherness: the literacy campaign in NEP-Era Russia. The United States: Susquehanna University Press.

Çalışkan, S., ve Doğan, D. K. (2020). İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nda Sovyetler Birliği'ndeki Radyo Yayınlarında Propaganda Şarkılarının Kullanılması: "Kutsal Savaş" Şarkısı Üzerine İnceleme. Eurasian Journal of Music And Dance, (16), 263-280. doi.org/10.31722/ejmd.757538

Dardour, M. (2000). The literacy campaign in rural Morocco: Drawing some lessons. Prospects, 30(1), 125-142.

Dündar, G. (2019). Mussolini İtalyası'nda Spor Yayıncılığı. TRT Akademi, 4(8), 308-324.

Eklof, B. (1987). Russian literacy campaigns, 1861–1939. Ed. Robert F. Arnove, Harvey J. Graff. In National Literacy Campaigns (123-145). Boston, MA: Springer.

Erguig, R. (2017). The mosques-based literacy campaign in Morocco: A socio-cultural perspective. Studies in the Education of Adults, 49(1), 3-25. doi.org/10.1080/02660830.2017.1283755

Fiske, J. (2017). İletişim Çalışmalarına Giriş, Çev: Süleyman İrvan, 5. Basım, Ankara: Bilim ve Sanat Yayınları.

Golobokova, Y. (2011). Literacy and democracy in Russia. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 68(1), 50-55.

Глущенко, И. В. (2015). Советский просветительский проект: ликвидация неграмотности среди взрослых в 1920–1930‑е годы. Вопросы образования, (3), 246-282.

горюнова, а. г. (2012). советское государство и общественность в борьбе за грамотность женщин в 1920-е годы в регионе верхнего поволжья. ивановского государственного университета, 23-27.

Grainger, I. P. (1987). The literacy campaign in Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 2(2), 49-58. Guiraud, P. (2016). Göstergebilim. Çev., Mehmet Yalçın. 3. Baskı. Ankara: İmge Kitabevi.

Guroff, G., ve Starr, S. F. (1971). A Note on Urban Literacy in Russia, 1890—1914. Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, (H. 4), 520-531.

Hanemann, U. (2006). Nicaragua’s literacy campaign. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report, 1-13.

Herman, R. (2012). An army of educators: Gender, revolution and the Cuban literacy campaign of 1961. Gender & History, 24(1), 93-111. doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0424.2011.01670.x

Hobbs, R., ve McGee, S. (2014). Teaching about propaganda: An examination of the historical roots of media literacy. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 6(2), 56-67.

Hobbs, R., Seyferth-Zapf, C., ve Grafe, S. (2018). Using virtual exchange to advance media literacy competencies through analysis of contemporary propaganda. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 10(2), 152-168. doi.org/10.23860/JMLE-2018-10-2-9

Kalkina, V. (2020). Between Humour and Public Commentary: Digital Re-appropriation of the Soviet Propaganda Posters as Internet Memes. Journal of Creative Communications, 15(2) 131–146. doi.org/10.1177/0973258619893780

Karabulut, F. (2009). İktidar ve meşrulaştırma mücadelesinin odağı orta Asya: Sovyetlerin dil ve eğitim politikaları. Bilig Dergisi, 50, 64-95.

Kefeli, A. N. (2014). Becoming Muslim in imperial Russia: Conversion, apostasy, and literacy. New York: Cornell University Press.

Kisel, M. (2008). Literacy and Literary Mastery in Early Soviet Russia: The Case of Yuri Olesha's "Envy". Ulbandus Review, 11, 23-45.

Klarin, V. (1970). Lenin and Krupskaya in the struggle for public education. Soviet Education, 12(12), 51-64. Korolev, F. F. (1970). Lenin and public education. Prospects in Education, 1(2), 45-50.

Koutaissoff, E. (1951). Literacy and the place of Russian in the non‐Slav republics of the USSR. Europe‐Asia Studies, 3(2), 113-130.

Kraevskii, V. V. (1987). The Soviet Union's Experience in the Elimination of Adult Literacy. Convergence, 20(2), 20-25.

Lapko, A. F., ve Lyusternik, L. A. (1970). Lenin, science and education. Russian Mathematical Surveys, 25(2), 13-76.

Лебедева, Л. В. (2012). Проблемы ликвидации неграмотности крестьян в первое десятилетие советской власти. Известия Пензенского государственного педагогического университета им. ВГ Белинского, (27), 776-778.

Leiner, M. (1987). The 1961 national Cuban literacy campaign. Ed. Robert F. Arnove, Harvey J. Graff. In National Literacy Campaigns (pp. 173-196). Boston, MA: Springer.

Lilge, F. (1968). Lenin and the Politics of Education. Slavic Review, 27(2), 230-257.

Липатова, Н. В. (2012). Политический ликбез как пропуск в ряды кадрового резерва советского руководства на местах в 20-е гг. Хх в. Известия Иркутского государственного университета. Серия: Политология. Религиоведение, (2-2), 85-91.

Lucas, C. J. (1981). Arab illiteracy and the mass literacy campaign in Iraq. Comparative Education Review, 25(1), 74-84.

Maharramova Cengiz, N., ve Şimşek, A. (2017). Sovyetler Birliği Döneminde Rusya’da Okutulan Tarih Ders Kitaplarında Türk İmajı. CTAD: Cumhuriyet Tarihi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 13(26), 37-66.

Mammo, G. (1982). The national literacy campaign in Ethiopia. Prospects, 12(2), 193-199.

Mažeikienė, N., ve Juraitė, K. (2014). Propaganda, critical media literacy and participation: Tracing memories of the Soviet media. CM-Časopis Za Upravljanje Komuniciranjem, 9(30), 79-104.

McKay, V. (2018). Through the eye of a fly: Action research as a support for the South African national literacy campaign. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 31(4), 375-393. doi.org/10.1007/s11213-017-9431-x

Mironov, B. N. (1986). Literacy in Russia, 1797-1917: Obtaining New Historical Information through the Application of Retrospective Prediction Methods. Soviet Studies in History, 25(3), 89-117. doi.org/10.2753/RSH1061-1983250389

Mironov, B. N. (1991). The Development of Literacy in Russia and the USSR from the Tenth to the Twentieth Centuries. History of Education Quarterly, 31(2), 229-252. Doi: 10.2307/368437

Mohanty, A. K. (2005). Paradigms of learning: The total literacy campaign in India. Contemporary Education Dialogue, 2(2), 249-252. doi.org/10.1177/097318490500200207

Monoszon, E. I. (1981). VI Lenin and Methods of Communist Education. Soviet Education, 23(4), 35-52. doi.org/10.2753/RES1060-9393230435

Mpofu, S. T. (1997). The fallacies of literacy campaigns: reflections on the Zimbabwe national literacy campaign. Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research, 9(1), 18-43.

Mujica, R. J. (1981). Some recollections of my experiences in the Cuban Literacy Campaign. Journal of Reading, 25(3), 222-225.

Natolochnaya, O. V., Bulgarova, B. A., & Bragina, M. A. (2018). The struggle for literacy in the Russian troops in the late 1850s-Early 1860s. Былые годы. Российский исторический журнал, (47), 225-231.

Nazarova, L. K. (1988). An Outline of the History of the Methods of Teaching Literacy in Soviet Russia, 1917—1947. Ed. John A. Downing. In Advances in Psychology (Vol. 49, pp. 37-65). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Omolewa, M. (2008). Programmed for failure? The colonial factor in the mass literacy campaign in Nigeria, 1946–1956. Paedagogica Historica, 44(1-2), 107-121.

Ortega, D., & Rodríguez, F. (2008). Freed from illiteracy? A closer look at Venezuela’s Misión Robinson literacy campaign. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 57(1), 1-30.

Özdemir, B. (2016). Rusya’nın Kırsal Kesiminde Komünist Gençler Birliği’nin (Komsomol) Kuruluşu ve Sovyet İktidarının Güçlenmesindeki Rolü: 1918-39. Marmara Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(1), 19-30. DOI: 10.16985/MTAD.2016126863

Özdemir, B. (2018). Sovyetler Birliği’nde Komünist İdeolojinin Eğitime Yansımaları: 1920’li ve 1930’lu Yıllar. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 3(1), 103-111.

Павлова, Л. В. (2014). Общество «Долой неграмотность» и его роль в ликвидации неграмотности в Оренбуржье в 20-30-е гг. XX в. Общество: философия, история, культура, (1), 40-44.

Paul, N. L. (2010). A warlord's wisdom: literacy and propaganda at the time of the First Crusade. Speculum, 85(3), 534-566.

Петрова, Я. И. (2007). Ликбез как социальный проект (на материалах Самарской губернии, 1920-1930-е годы). Журнал исследований социальной политики, 5(4), 519-540.

Prieto, A. (1981). Cuba's national literacy campaign. Journal of Reading, 25(3), 215-221.

Rao, N. (1999). Cycling into the future: A report on women’s participation in a literacy campaign in Tamil Nadu, India. Gender, Technology and Development, 3(3), 457-474.

Ravkin, Z. (1964). Struggle for the Leninist Style of Work in the People's Commissariat of Education. Soviet Education, 6(11), 44-54.

Redavantgarde (2020). Sovyetler Birliği Propaganda Posterleri, http:// redavantgarde. com/ en/ collection /show -collection/ ?themeId= 53, Erişim Tarihi: 16.09.2020.

Rifat, M. (2013). Açıklamalı Göstergebilim Sözlüğü: Kavramlar, Yöntemler, Kuramcılar, Okullar. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.

Riordan, J. (1989). The Komsomol. Ed. Jim Riordan. In Soviet youth culture (pp. 16-44). London: Palgrave Macmillan. Ross, L. W. (1960). Some aspects of Soviet education. Journal of Teacher Education, 11(4), 539-552.

Salma, A. N. (2019). Defining Digital Literacy in the Age of Computational Propaganda and Hate Spin Politics. KnE Social Sciences, 323-338. DOI: 10.18502/kss.v3i20.4945

Serra, A. (2001). The Literacy Campaign in the Cuban Revolution and the Transformation of Identity in the Liminal Space of the Sierra. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, 10(1), 131-141. doi.org/10.1080/13569320020030097

Soundarapandian, M. (2000). Literacy campaign in India. India: Discovery Publishing House.

Stevens, C. B. (1980). Belgorod: Notes on Literacy and Language in the Seventeenth-Century Russian Army. Russian History, 7(1), 113-124.

Unsicker, J. (1987). Tanzania’s literacy campaign in historical-structural perspective. Ed. Robert F. Arnove, Harvey J. Graff. In National Literacy Campaigns (pp. 219-244). Boston, MA: Springer.

Wade, R. A. (2006). The October Revolution, the Constituent Assembly, and the End of the Russian Revolution. Ed. Ian D. Thatcher. In Reinterpreting Revolutionary Russia (pp. 72-85). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Yılmaz, M. B. (2020). İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nda Japon Medyasının ABD'ye Yönelik Faaliyetleri: Tokyo Rose Radyo Yayınları Üzerine İnceleme. İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9(1), 541-563. https://doi.org/10.15869/itobiad.657946

Zepper, J. T. (1965). NK Krupskaya on Complex Themes in Soviet Education. Comparative Education Review, 9(1), 33-37.

Zimianin, M. (1985). Following Leninist Principles for the Development of Public Education. Soviet Education, 28(1), 43-74.

Zitser, E. A. (2018). Raphael Lemkin and the Soviet Propaganda Poster Collection at Duke University Library. Slavic & East European Information Resources, 19(3-4), 242-262. doi.org/10.1080/15228886.2018.1538863

Kaynak Göster

APA Çakı, C , Gazi, M , Çakı, G , Gülada, M . (2020). Likbez Kampanyası Dönemindeki Propaganda Posterleri Üzerine Göstergebilimsel Bir İnceleme . Türk Kütüphaneciliği , 34 (4) , 663-692 . DOI: 10.24146/tk.806892