ESKİ YAKINDOĞU’DA RİTÜEL ŞİDDET, KURBAN BUNALIMI VE TOPLUMSAL DÜZENİN KONSOLİDASYONU: İNSAN KURBANI VE TOPLUMSAL ETKİLERİ

Seçkinler sınıfının oluşmaya başladığı, toplumsal eşitsizliğinin arttığı dönemlerde, Eski Yakındoğu’da, insan kurbanıyla ilgili çok önemli buluntular açığa çıkarılmıştır. Sosyal ve ekonomik dinamiklerin değişmeye başladığı bu tür toplumlarda, toplumsal eşitsizliğin yarattığı gerilim ve şiddetin önüne geçebilmek için paradoksal olarak hem eşitsizliği besleyen hem de çatışma ve anlaşmazlığı görünür olmaktan çıkaran ritüel davranışlar artmaya başlamıştır. Kendi simgesel kimliğinin sınırlarının dışında kalanı kötü, kirli ve varlığına tehdit olarak gören bu topluluklar için ritüel şiddetin besleneceği kaynaklar, düşük statüdeki bireyler, yeni doğanlar ve esirler üzerinden karşılanmaktaydı. Eski Yakındoğu’da yaşamın, ölümün ve yer altı dünyasının algılanış biçimi modern toplumlardaki seküler dünya görüşü ve kavramlarıyla açıklanamaz. Arkeolojik kazılar sonucunda elde edilen bulgular dışında Sumerce yazılı belgelerde ve çeşitli mühürler üzerinde insan kurbanına dair önemli bilgiler elde edilmiştir. Sumerce yazılı belgelerde çok sık olmamakla birlikte iki yerde insan kurbanına dair bilgiler öne çıkmaktadır. İkonografik buluntular üzerinde ise insan kurbanı genelde bir tanrısal şiddetle ilintili görülmektedir.

Ritual Violence, Sacrificial Crisis and Consolidation of the Social Order in the Ancient Near East: Human Sacrifice and Its Social Effects

In periods, during which elite class began to arise, social inequality increased, in ancient Near East, quite significant findings about human sacrifice has been uncovered. In such societies, where social and economic dynamics began to change, to be able to prevent the tension created by social inequality and the violence, ritual behaviors that paradoxically both fed inequality and made conflict and disagreement invisible began to increase. For these societies seeing the rest as out of bounds of their own symbolic identity as bad, filthy and a threat to their existence, the sources, on which ritual violence was fed, were met through individuals in low status, new born and slaves. Perception manner of life, death and underworld in ancient Near East cannot be explained with secular world view and its concepts in modern societies. Except from findings obtained as a result of archeological excavations, in documents written in Sumerian language and on various seals, important information has been attained related to human sacrifice. Although not frequently, in the documents written in Sumerian information about human sacrifice has come to the forefront in two points. On iconographic findings human sacrifice has in general been seen as connected to divine violence.

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Kaynak Göster