Covid-19 Pandemi Sürecinde İşletmelerin İnovasyon Kümesinin Pazarlama ve Yönetim Perspektifinden Değerlendirilmesi

Günümüzde üretim ve hizmet ortamlarındaki değişim sürekli hale gelmiştir. Yaşanan hızlı değişimler karşısında işletme yöneticileri, zorlu pazar şartlarında hayatta kalabilmek için sürdürülebilir bir gelişim yolu aramak zorundadır ve bu yol, inovasyon faaliyetlerinin sürekli hale getirilmesinden geçmektedir. Pazarlama karmasının en önemli unsurlarından olan ürün, ancak değişen müşteri taleplerine ve ihtiyaçlarına uygun hale getirildiği takdirde daha fazla tercih edilir hale gelmektedir. Bununla birlikte yalnızca pazarlama açısından değil, yönetimsel açıdan da müşteri beklentileri ile uyumlu inovasyonlar gerçekleştirebilmek, işletmelere rekabet avantajı bağlamında oldukça önemli avantajlar sunmaktadır. Yönetim inovasyonu, işlerin gerçekleştirilme biçimini, geleneksel yöntemlerden önemli ölçüde farklılaştırma yeteneğine sahip ve bu farklılaşma ile örgütün performansını artırmaya yardımcı olan bir kavrama karşılık gelmektedir. Yapılan bu araştırmanın amacı; Covid-19 pandemi sürecinde işletmelerin inovasyon kümesinin, pazarlama ve yönetim perspektifinden ele alınmasıdır. Bu bağlamda araştırma; işletme, ürün, stratejik ve yönetim inovasyonlarından oluşan inovasyon kümesi bağlamında değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmada nitel analiz yöntemlerinden “içerik analizi” kullanılmıştır. Bu kapsamda Konya ilinde faaliyet gösteren özel eğitim kurumlarının yöneticileri ile birebir görüşme yapılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler nitel araştırma yöntemlerinde sıklıkla kullanılan MAXQDA 18 programı aracılığıyla kodlanmış ve sonrasında verilerin analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan bu araştırma sonucunda; Covid-19 pandemi dönemi sürecinde işletmelerin inovasyon kümesi kapsamında yönetim ve pazarlamaya yönelik mevcut ve gelecek projeksiyonları açısından çeşitli inovasyonlar gerçekleştirdikleri tespit edilmiştir.

Evaluation of the Innovation Cluster of Businesses From the Marketing and Management Perspective in the Covid-19 Pandemic Process

Today, change has become continuous in production and service environments. In the face of rapid changes, business managers have to seek a sustainable development path in order to survive in challenging market conditions, and this road passes through the continuation of innovation activities. The product, which is one of the most important elements of the marketing mix, becomes more preferred only if it is adapted to changing customer demands and needs. On the other hand, being able to realize innovations that are compatible with customer expectations not only in terms of marketing but also in terms of management is considered as a very important obligation in terms of competitive advantage. Management innovation is a concept that has the ability to significantly differentiate the way practices are done from those of the traditional methods. The purpose of this research is to consider the innovation cluster of businesses from a marketing and management perspective during the Covid-19 pandemic process. In this context, the research has been evaluated in the context of an innovation cluster consisting of business, product, strategic and management innovations. Content analysis, one of the qualitative analysis methods, was used in the study. In this context, one-on-one meetings were held with the managers of private education institutions operating in Konya. The data obtained were coded using the MAXQDA 18 program, which is frequently used in qualitative research methods, and then the data were analyzed. As a result of this research, it was determined that during the Covid-19 pandemic period, enterprises carried out various innovations in terms of current and future projections for management and marketing within the scope of the innovation cluster.

Kaynakça

Aksoy, H. (2017). How do innovation culture, marketing innovation and product innovation affect the market performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)? Technology in Society, 51, 133-141.

Alegre, J., & Chiva, R. (2008). Assessing the impact of organizational learning capability on product innovation performance: An empirical test. Technovation, 28(6), 315-326.

Aygen, Selin (2006). İşletmelerde yenilik yönetimi sürecinde örgüt yapılarında ve hizmet tasarımlarında yaşanan dönüşümler: Antalya ili beş yıldızlı konaklama işletmelerinde ampirik bir araştırma ve hizmet tasarımı önerisi. Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi, Selçuk Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İşletme Anabilim Dalı, Konya.

Biçimveren, L. (2017). Pazar odaklılık, yenilik odaklılık, pazarlama inovasyonu ve uluslararası pazar performansı: Balıkesir ve bursa illerinde dış ticaret yapan firmalara yönelik bir uygulama. Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi, Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Uluslararası Ticaret ve Pazarlama Ana Bilim Dalı. Balıkesir.

Biloshkurska N. V., Biloshkursky, M. V., & Kravchenko R. O. (2017). Marketynhovyi analiz stratehichnoi konkurentospromozhnosti vyshchykh navchalnykh zakladiv rehionu [Marketing analysis of the strategic competitiveness of regional establishments of higher education]. Ekonomichni horyzonty [Economies’ Horizons], 2(3), 25-30.

Birkinshaw, J. & Mol, M. (2006). How management innovation happens. MITSloan Management Rewiev, 47(4), 81-88.

Birkinshaw, J., Bouquet, C. & Barsoux, J. (2011). Los cinco mitos de la innovacion. Harvard Deusto Business Review, 201, 12-24.

Braslavska O. V., Biloshkurska N. V. & Biloshkurskyi М. V. (2019). Modern Innovation in Marketing Of Educational Services. İçinde: Prognostication And Planning Of Economic Development: Microeconomic And Macroeconomic Levels. (ss.400-414). Publishing House. Baltija Publishing.

Brilman, J. (2002). Nowoczesne Koncepcje I Metody Zarządzania. Warszawa: Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne.

Camisón, C., & Villar-López, A. (2011). Organizational innovation as an enabler of technological innovation capabilities and firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 67(1), 2891-2902.

Cooper, R. G. & Kleinschmidt, E. J. (1995). Benchmarking firms’ new product performance and practices. Engineering Management Review, 23(3),112-120.

Cooper, R. G. & Kleinschmidt, E. J. (1996). Winning businessesin product development: critical success factors. research? Technology Management, 39(4), 18–29

Cooper, R.G. & Kleinschmidt (1987). Success factors in product ınnovation. Industrial Marketing Management. 16, 215-223.

Cooper, R.G. (2000). Product innovation technology strategy. Research Technology Management, 44(1), 38- 44.

Cruz-Ros, S., Garzon, D., & Mas-Tur, A. (2017). Entrepreneurial competencies and motivations to enhance marketing innovation in Europe. Psychology & Marketing, 34(11), 1031-1038.

Demircioğlu, M.A. (2016). Organizational Innovation. Springer International Publishing AG 2016 A. Farazmand (ed.), Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Public Policy, and Governance. 1-6.

Devane, S. & Wilson, J. (2009). Business benefits of non-managed knowledge. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), 31-40.

Doyle, P. & Bridgewater, S. (1998). Innovation in Marketing. Oxford: Butterwoth-Heinemann.

Drejer, A. (2006). Strategic innovation: A new perspective on strategic management. Handbook of Business Strategy. 7(1), 143-147.

Dutta, S., Narasimhan, O., & Rajiv, S. (1999). Success in high technology markets: Is marketing capability critical? Marketing Science, 18(4), 547-568

Fuentes-Blasco, M., Moliner-Velázquez, B., Servera-Francés, D., & Gil-Saura, I. (2017). Role of marketing and technological innovation on store equity, satisfaction and word-of-mouth in retailing. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 26(6), 650-666.

Gebauer, H., Worch, H., & Truffer, B. (2012). Absorptive capacity, learning processes and combinative capabilities as determinants of strategic innovation. European Management Journal, 30(1), 57-73.

Geldes, C., Felzensztein, C., & Palacios-Fenech, J. (2017). Technological and non-technological innovations, performance and propensity to innovate across industries: The case of an emerging economy. Industrial Marketing Management, 61, 55-66.

Govindarajan, V., & Trimble, C. (2004). Strategic innovation and the science of learning. MIT Sloan Management Review, 45(2), 67-75.

Govindarajan, V., & Trimble, C. (2005). Organizational DNA for strategic innovation. California Management Review, 47(3), 47-76.

Grant, M. R (2008). The Future of Management: Where is Gary Hamel Leading Us? Long Range Planning, 41(2008), 469-482.

Gupta, S., Malhotra, N. K., Czinkota, H., & Foroudi, P. (2016). Marketing innovation: A consequence of competitiveness. Journal of Business Research, 69(12), 5671-5681.

Gümüş, S. & Gümüş, G.H. (2015). Marketing Innovation in Business. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 181(2015), 261-268.

Gümüşlüoğlu, L. & İlsev, A. (2009). Transformational leadership, creativity and organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.

Hamel, G. & Bren, B. (2007). The Future of Management. Harvard Business School. Hamel, G. (1998). The challenge today: changing the rules of the game. Business Strategy Review, 9(2), 19- 26.

Hancıoğlu, Y. & Yeşilaydın, G. (2016). Stratejik yönetimde yeni bir rekabet yaklaşımı.: Stratejik inovasyon. Uluslararası Yönetim İktisat ve İşletme Dergisi, 12(29), 105-124.

Hultink, E. J., Robben, H.S.J. (1995), Measuring new product success: The difference that time perspective makes. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 12(5), 392-405.

Kafetzopoulos, D., & Psomas, E. (2016). Organisational learning, non-technical innovation and customer satisfaction of SMEs. International Journal of Innovation Management, 20(3), 1650041.

Kalivas,Y. Gkofa, F., Rakovitis, C., Tonkov, A., Petrov, V. & Likar, B. (2013). Basic On Innovation. İçinde Borut Likar, Peter Fatur, Urška Mrgole (Ed.), Innovation Management. (ss: 13-26). Korona plus d.o.o., Institute for Innovation and Technology, Slovenia, 1st edition, 2.

Kim, N. & Atuahene‐Gima, K. (2010). Using exploratory and exploitative market learning for new product development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(4), 519-536.

Kuncoro, W., Suriani, W.O., 2018. Achieving sustainable competitive advantage through product innovation and market driving. Asia Pac. Manag. Rev. 23(3), 186-192.

Lam A (2006). Organizational innovation. In: Fagerberg J, Mowery DC (eds) The Oxford Handbook Of Innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lee, R., Lee, J.-H., & Garrett, T. C. (2019). Synergy effects of innovation on firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 99, 507-515.

Lorsch, J.W. (1977). Organization design: A situational perspective. Organizational Dynamics, 6(2), 2-14.

Markiewicz, J. (2010). Instytucje otoczenia biznesu. Rola w kształtowaniu sektora MSP na przykładzie województwa zachodniopomorskiego. Szczecin: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego.

Medrano, N., & Olarte-Pascual, C. (2016). The effects of the crisis on marketing innovation: An application for Spain. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 31(3), 404-417.

Medrano, N., Canamares, C.M.; Pascual, O.C. (2020). Impact of marketing ınnovation. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing. 35(1), 1-12.

Millson, M.R. (2013), Exploring the moderating influence of product innovativeness on the organizational integration-new product market succes relationship. European Journal of Innovation Management, 16(3), 317-334.

Muigai, R.G., Gitau, S.N., (2018). Effect of innovation strategies on financial performance of the banking industry in Kenya. Eur. J. Econ. Financ. Res. 3(1), 168-186.

Nadda, V. & Arnott, I. (2019). Marketing Innovation in Tourism. İçinde Sumesh Sing Dadwal (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Innovations in Technology and Marketing for the Connected. (ss: 401-415). IGI Global.

Naidoo, V. (2010). Firm survival through a crisis: The influence of market orientation, marketing innovation and business strategy. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(8), 1311–1320.

Negulescu, H.O. (2020). Innovatıon management: the source of contınuous ımprovement of competıtıve advantage and organızatıon’s performance. Review of General Management, 32(2), 60-75.

Ngo, L. V., & O’Cass, A. (2012). In search of innovation and customer-related performance superiority: The role of market orientation, marketing capability, and innovation capability interactions. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(5), 861-877.

O’Dwyer, M., Gilmore, A., & Carson, D. (2009). Innovative marketing in SMEs: An empirical study. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 17(5), 383-396.

OECD/Eurostat. (2005). Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. OECD Publishing.

Palmer, D. & Kaplan, S. (2007). A framework for strategic ınnovation-blending strategy and creative exploration to discover future business opportunities, Innovation Point LLC, (Online) http://www.fastbridge.net/wpcontent/uploads/resources/A%20framework%20for%20strategic%20innovation.pdf., 21.24.2017, 1-22.

Purchase, S. & Volery, T. (2020). Marketing Innovation. A systematic review, Journal of Marketing Management, 36(9-10), 763-793.

Ramirez, F. J., Parra-Requena, G., Ruiz-Ortega, M. J., & GarciaVillaverde, P. M. (2018). From external information to marketing innovation: The mediating role of product and organizational innovation. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 33(5), 693-705.

Sánchez-Gutiérrez, J., Cabanelas, P., Lampón, J. F., & González-Alvarado, T. E. (2019). The impact on competitiveness of customer value creation through relationship capabilities and marketing innovation. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 34(3), 618-627.

Schlegelmilch, B. B., Diamantopoulos, A., & Kreuz, P. (2010). Strategic innovation: the construct, its drivers and its strategic outcomes. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(2), 117-132.

Sniukas, M. (2010). Reshaping Strategy: Exploring The Content, Process And Context Of Strategic Innovation. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Publishing.

Soylu, A. & Göl, Ö. M. (2010). Yönetim inovasyonu. Sosyo Ekonomi, 1(100107), 112-130.

Volberda, H.W., Van Den Bosch, F.A.J.ve Heij, C.V. (2013). Management Innovation: Management as Fertile Ground for Innovation. European Management Review, 10, 1-15.

Wang, S. (2015). What motivates marketing ınnovation and whether marketing ınnovation varies across ındustry sectors, Phd Thesis, University of Ottawa.

Wang, Y. (2020). The ınfluence of market orıentatıon on department store floor managers’ job performance- the medıatıng roles of organızatıonal ınnovatıon and perceıved organızatıonal support. The International Journal of Organizational Innovation. 13(2), 35-48.

Warren, N.L. & Sorescu, A. (2017). When 1+ 1> 2: How investors react to new product releases announced concurrently with other corporate news. Journal of Marketing, 81(2), 64-82.

Weerawardena, J. (2003). The role of marketing capability in innovation-based competitive strategy. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(1), 15-35.

Wojtkiewicz, S.M. (2017). Dimension of marketing innovations and marketing of innovation in enterprises. Marketing i Zarządzanie. 1(47), 51-58.

Wong, S. (2013). The role of management involvement in innovation. Management Decision, 51(4), 709- 729.

Yıldırım, İ. E. (2017). İstatistiksel Araştırma Yöntemleri, Araştırma Tasarımı-Örnekleme-Veri Toplama Teknikleri, Ankara: Seçkin Yayınları.

Zhang, F., Sun, S., Liu, C. & Chang, V. (2020). Consumer innovativeness, product innovation and smart toys. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications. 41(2020) 100974, 1-14.

Kaynak Göster