Tunç Çağı’nda Mezopotamya’da Lapis Lazulinin Temini, Kullanımı ve Önemi

Lapis lazuli, ana bileşeni lazurit minerali, kalsit, pirit ve diğer silikatlarla birlikte birkaç farklı mineralin bileşiminden oluşan mavi renkli, yarı şeffaf-opak nitelikli bir taştır. Lapis lazuli, doğada çok kolay bulunan bir taş değildir. Bu taşın elde edildiği dünyadaki ana üretim alanları Güney Amerika, Baykal Gölü ve Afganistan’ın Bedahşan bölgesidir. Çalışma sahamızı oluşturan Mezopotamya coğrafyasında lapis lazuli kaynağı yoktur. Buna rağmen lapis lazulinin, Mezopotamya’da erken tarihlerden itibaren tanındığı bilinmektedir. Tunç Çağı’na gelindiğinde ise Mezopotamya uygarlıklarınca özellikle de Sumerler tarafından beğenilen ve elde edilmek istenen bir taş olduğu görülmektedir. Mezopotamya uygarlıkları, bu taşı kendileri kullandıkları gibi onun Mısır ve Anadolu’ya taşınmasına da öncülük etmişlerdir. Bu çalışmanın amacı Mezopotamya coğrafyasında bulunmamasına rağmen ithalatı yapılan değerli taşlar arasında görülen lapis lazulinin, Tunç Çağı’nda Mezopotamya uygarlıklarınca hangi kaynaklardan temin edildiği, bölgeye nasıl ulaştığı, hangi alanlarda kullanım gördüğü ve bu taşa ne tür anlamlar yüklendiğini ortaya çıkarmaktır.

The Supply, Use and Importance of Lapis Lazuli in Mesopotamia in the Bronze Age

Lapis lazuli is a precious stone of generally blue color, translucent-opaque quality, which contains lazurite mineral and consists of several different minerals together with calcite, pyrite and other silicates. Lapis lazuli is not an easily found stone in nature. The main production areas in the world where lapis lazuli is obtained are South America, Lake Baikal and Bedahşan region of Afghanistan. There is no source of lapis lazuli in Mesopotamia geography, which composes our study region. Despite this, it is known that lapis lazuli has been known in Mesopotamia since early dates. When it comes to the Bronze Age, it is seen that it is a stone that is liked and desired to be obtained by the Mesopotamian civilizations, especially by the Sumerians. Mesopotamian civilizations used this stone themselves as well as pioneered its move to Egypt and Anatolia. This study aims to reveal from which sources the lapis lazuli, was obtained, which has been used since very early dates, how it reached the region, in which areas it was used, and what kind of meanings were attributed to this stone by Mesopotamian civilizations in the Bronze Age, although it was not found in Mesopotamian geography.

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