A Review of the Environmental Sustainability History of the World and Turkey

This study focuses on the recent past of the concept of sustainability, and one of its most important components, environmental sustainability which included our lives in the second half of the 20th century. Sustainable development was recognized internationally for the first time in 1987 as a general expression of the search for a balance among economy, society, and nature in terms of the resources with the principle of intergenerational equality. After this date, both Turkey and many other nations of the world provided various agreements and commitments on environmental sustainability related to their concerns for the common future. In this context, the aim of the study is to review the progress and the results of these various approaches. Turkey’s history of environmental sustainability at both international and national levels has been examined in four periods. Periods are examined according to dominant sentiment, national period-specific characteristics, international treaties, legislative regulations, urban planning characteristics, and planning paradigm titles. It is found that both global and local goals have not been achieved yet, by this study which scrutinizes the recent history with almost 50 years to the present. The process that started with real problems and sensitivity in the practice continued with fashion and discursive expressions in times. It is understood that the sustainable urban environment, one of the main goals of urban planning has also turned into an ideal. Therefore, the steps that will be taken by Turkey within the environmental crisis period which have been experienced since 2010 are also supposed to determine the future of urban planning.

Çevresel Sürdürülebilirliğin Dünya ve Türkiye'deki Tarihine Dair Bir İnceleme

Bu çalışmada 20. yy’ın ikinci yarısı ile birlikte hayatımıza giren sürdürülebilirlik kavramı ve onun en önemli bileşenlerinden olan çevresel sürdürülebilirlik olgusunun yakın geçmişine odaklanılmaktadır. Sürdürülebilir gelişme, nesillerarası eşitlik prensibi ile kaynakların kullanımında ekonomi, toplum ve doğa üçgeninde bir denge arayışının genel ifadesi olarak ilk defa 1987 yılında uluslararası olarak kabul görmüştür. Bu tarihten sonra hem Türkiye hem de diğer dünya devletleri ortak gelecek kaygısı ile çevresel sürdürülebilirlik alanında çeşitli anlaşmalar ve taahhütler vermişlerdir. Çalışmanın amacı; bu süreçlerin nasıl ilerlediği ve sonuçta uygulamaların nasıl olduğunu incelemektir. Türkiye’nin gerek uluslararası gerek ulusal ölçekteki sürdürülebilirlik geçmişi dört döneme ayrılarak incelenmiştir. Dönemler; döneme hakim düşünce, ulusal döneme özgü özellikler, uluslararası anlaşmalar, mevzuat düzenlemeleri, şehir planlama özellikleri ve planlama paradigmaları başlıklarına göre incelenmiştir. Günümüze kadar olan yaklaşık 50 yıllık yakın tarihe mercek tutan bu çalışma ile hem küresel hem de yerel hedeflere ulaşılamadığı görülmektedir. Gerçek sorunlar ve duyarlılık ile başlayan sürecin moda ve söylemsel ifadelerle devam ettiği, uygulamada karşılaşılan sorunlardan izlenebilmiştir. Kent planlamanın temel hedeflerinden olan sürdürülebilir kentsel çevrenin de bir ideale dönüştüğü görülmektedir. Dolayısıyla 2010 yılından itibaren yaşanan çevresel kriz sürecinde Türkiye’nin atacağı adımların kent planlamanın da geleceğini belirlemesi beklenmektedir

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Kaynak Göster