Bu makalede, supermarket perakendeciliği sektöründe kültürlerarası iletişim yetkinliğinin kişisel etkileşim ve müşteri tatmini üzerindeki etkisinin daha iyi anlaşılması hedeflenmektedir. Çalışma üç temel kuramı incelemektedir; kültürlerarası iletişim yetkinliği ve Malezya’nın Klang bölgesindeki önde gelen supermarket perakendecilerinde hizmet kalitesi ve müşteri tatmini adına önemli değişkenlerden biri olan kişisel etkileşim. Bu çalışmada müşteri temelli yaklaşım metodolojisi kullanılmış ve veri, yapılandırılmış anket yöntemi kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Kuramların ve kuramlar arası ilişkilerin ölçümü yapısal eşitlik modeli ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Önerilen model kapsamında, çalışanların kültürlerarası iletişim yetkinlikleri üzerinde ampirik araştırma yapmayı kolaylaştıracak bir takım öneriler geliştirilmiştir; roller arası uyumluluk ve seçilmiş supermarket perakendecilerinin müşterileri tarafından algılandığı biçimiyle etkileşim rahatlığı gibi. Bu, hizmet kalitesi ve müşteri tatminini kültürlerarası yetkinliğe bağlayan teori modelli bir path modeli oluşturmaya katkı sağlamaktadır. Hizmet kalitesi ve müşteri tatmini konusunu çalışan çok sayıda araştırmacı olmasına karşın, bu araştırmacılardan hiçbiri kültürlerarası iletişim yetkinliğinin kritik rolünü incelememiş ve bu kuramı, hizmet kalitesi ve müşteri tatmini modeline entegre etmemiştir. Kültürlerarası kavramların özellikle çok kültürlü toplumlarda başarı için kritik önem arz eden unsurlar olarak kabul edilmeye başlanmasıyla birlikte, bu faktörün temel belirleyicilerinden olan kapsayıcı bir boyut olguyu kavrayışımıza katkı ve gelecek çalışmalara bir ivme kazandırmalıdır.
The article aims to better understand the impact of intercultural communication competence on personal interaction and customer satisfaction in grocery retail industry. The study explored three major constructs namely intercultural communication competence, personal interaction which is one of the important variables for service quality and customer satisfaction of major grocery retail outlets (e.g. supermarkets and hypermarkets) in Klang Valley area, Malaysia. The customer based approach methodology was adopted and the data was collected using structured questionnaire survey. The measurement of the constructs and their interrelationships were examined based on structural equation modelling approach. Based on the proposed framework, a number of propositions were developed to facilitate empirical research on intercultural communication competences of staff comprises of inter-role congruence and interaction comfort as perceived by customers of the selected grocery retail outlets. This contributes to the development of a theory based path model, which links the intercultural competence to service quality and customer satisfaction. Although numerous researchers have studied the extensive topic of service quality and customer satisfaction, none of those studies explored the critical role of intercultural communication competence and integrated the construct in their service quality and customer satisfaction model. Since intercultural notions are becoming acknowledged as crucial to success particularly in multicultural society, an inclusive dimension of the key determinants of the factor should improve our understanding of this phenomenon and provide an impetus for future research
BABAKUS, E. and BOLLER, G.W. (1992), “An empirical assessment of the SERVQUAL scale”, Journal of Business Research, Vol.24 No.3, pp. 253-268.
BAKER, T.L., CRONIN, J.J.Jr. and HOPKINS, C.D. (2009), “The impact of involvement on key service relationships”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.23 No.2, pp. 114-123.
BITNER, M.J. and HUBBERT, A.R. (1994), “Encounter satisfaction versus overall satisfaction versus quality”, in Rust, R.T. and Oliver, R.L. (Eds), Service Quality: New Direction in Theory and Practice, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
BRIONES, E., TABERNERO, C., TRAMONTANO, C., CAPRARA, G.V. and ARENAS, A. (2009), “Development of a cultural self-efficacy scale for adolescents”, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol.33 No.4, pp. 301–312.
BOUMAN, M. and VAN DER, W.T. (1992), “Measuring service quality in the car service industry: Building and testing and instrument”, Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol.3 No.4, pp. 4-16.
CARO, L.M. and GARCIA, J.A.M. (2007), “Measuring perceived service quality in urgent transport service”, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.14 No.1, pp. 60-72.
CHAN, H. and WAN, L.C. (2008), “Consumer responses to service failures: a resource preference model of cultural influences”, Journal of International Marketing, Vol.16 No.1, 72–97.
COTTRELL, D.W. (2010). Global Agricultural Information Network. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service.
DABHOLKAR, P.A., DAYLE, I.T. and JOSEPH, O.R. (1996), “A measure of srvice quality for retail stores: Scale development and validation”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.24 No.1, pp. 3-16.
DODD, C.H. (1998), Dynamics of intercultural communication 5th edition. MA: Mcgraww-Hill, Boston.
FRIEDMAN, V.J. and ANTAL, A.B. (2005), “Negotiating reality: A theory of action approach to intercultural competence”, Management Learning, Vol.36 No.1, pp. 69-86.
GRO¨NROOS, C. (1984), “A service quality model and its marketing implications”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 18 No. 4, pp. 36-44.
HAIR, J., W. BLACK, B. BABIN, ANDERSON R. and TATHAM R. (2006), Multivariate Data Analysis 6th Edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
HOPKINS, S.A., HOPKINS, W.E. and HOFFMAN, K.D. (2005), “Domestic inter-cultural service encounters: An integrated model”, Managing Service Quality, Vol.15 No.4, pp. 329-343.
HUDDLESTON, P., WHIPPLE, J., MATTICK, R.N. and LEE, S.J. (2009), “Customer satisfaction in food retailing: comparing specialty and conventional grocery stores”, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol.37 No.1, pp.63-80.
IHTIYAR, A. and AHMAD, F.S. (2012), “Impact of intercultural competence on service quality and satisfaction in the grocery retailing: a conceptual framework ”, International Journal of Science and Management, Vol.1 No.1, pp.13-28.
KONG, M. and JOGARATNAM, G. (2007), “The influence of culture on perceptions of service employee behaviour”, Managing Service Quality, Vol.17 No.3, pp. 275-297.
KUO, Y.F., WU, C.M. and DENG, W.J. (2009), “The relationships among service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and post-purchase intention in mobile value-added services”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol.25 No.4, pp. 887-896.
LADHARI, R. (2009), “Service quality, emotional satisfaction, and behavioural intentions: A study in the hotel industry”, Managing Service Quality, Vol.19 No.3, pp.308-331.
LUSTIG, M.W., and KOESTER, J. (2009), Intercultural competence: Interpersonal Communication across Cultures 6th edition, Pearson, Boston.
MARTÍNEZ-RUIZ, M.P., JIMÉNEZ-ZARCO A.I. and CASCIO, R. (2011), “Assessing the maximum level of customer satisfaction in grocery stores: A comparison between Spain and the USA”, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol.39 No.7, pp. 504-521
MOLINER, M.A., SA´NCHEZ, J., RODRI´GUEZ, R.M. and CALLARİSA, L. (2007), “Perceived relationship quality and post- purchase perceived value An integrative framework”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol.41 (11/12), pp. 1392-1422.
OMAR, N.A. and MUSA, R. (2011), “Measuring service quality in retail loyalty programmes (LPSQual): Implications for retailers' retention strategies”, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol.39 No.10, pp.759-784.
PAPPUA, R., and QUESTERB, P. (2006), “A consumer-based method for retailer equity measurement: Results of an empirical study”, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.13 No.5, pp. 317–329.
PARASURAMAN, A., ZEITHAML, V.A. and BERRY, L.L. (1985), “A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.49 No.4, pp. 41-50.
PARASURAMAN, A., ZEITHAML, V.A. and BERRY, L.L. (1988), “SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality”, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 64 No.1, pp. 12-40.
PASWAN, A.K. and GANESH, G. (2005), “Cross-cultural interaction: comfort and service evaluation”, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol.18 No.1, pp. 93-115.
PRASAD, C.J. and ARYASRI, A.R. (2011) “Effect of shopper attributes on retail format choice behaviour for food and grocery retailing in India”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 39 No. 1, pp.68 – 86.
PWC (2011). Strong and steady outlook for the retail and consumer products sector in Asia. New York, USA.
REIMANN, M., LUNEMANN, U.F. and CHASE, R.B. (2008), “Uncertainty Avoidance as a moderator of the relationship between perceived service quality and customer satisfaction”, Journal of Service Research, Vol.11 No.1, pp. 63-73.
RUST, R.T. and OLIVER, R.L. (1994), “Service quality insights and managerial implications form the frontier”, Service Quality: New Direction in Theoryand Practice, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
RYOO, H.K. (2005), “Achieving friendly interactions: A study of service encounters between Korean shopkeepers and African- American customers”, Discourse and Society, Vol.16 No.1, pp. 79-105.
SHARMA, P., TAM, J.L.M. and KIM, N. (2009), “Demystifying intercultural service encounters toward a comprehensive conceptual framework”, Journal of Service Research, Vol.12 No.2, pp. 227-242.
SIZOO, S., PLANK, R., ISKAT, W. and SERRIE, H. (2005), “The effect of intercultural sensitivity on employee performance in cross- cultural service encounters”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.19 No.4, pp. 245-255.
SOLOMON, M.R., SURPRENANT, C., CZEPIEL, J.A. and GUTMAN, E.G. (1985), “A role theory perspective on dyadic interaction: the service encounter”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.49 No.1, pp. 99-111.
SOUIDEN, N. and PONS, F. (2009), “Product recall crisis management: the impact on manufacturer’s image, consumer loyalty and purchase intention”, Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol.18 No.2, pp. 106–114.
SURPRENANT, C.F., MICHAEL, R.S. and GUTMAN E.G. (1983), “Service encounters are human interactions”, Journal of Business Research, Vol.20 (January), pp. 13-21.
THOMAS, D.C., ELRON, E., STAHL, G., EKELUND, B.Z., RAVLIN, E.C., CERDIN, J.L, POELMANS, S., BRISLIN, R., PEKERTI, A., AYCAN, Z., MAZNEVSKI, M., AU, K. and LAZAROVA, M.B. (2008), “Cultural intelligence: Domain and assessment international”, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, Vol.8 No.2, pp. 123-143.
WALL, T.D. and PAYNE, R. (1973), “Are deficiency scores deficient?”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.58 No.3, pp. 322-326.
WANG, Y.J., DOSS, S.K., CHIQUAN GUO, C. and LI, W. (2010), “An investigation of Chinese consumers' outshopping motives from a culture perspective: Implications for retail and distribution”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 38 Iss: 6, pp.423 - 442
WIGLEY, S. and RACHEL CHIANG, C.-L. (2009), “Retail internationalisation in practice: per una in the UK and Taiwan”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 37 No. 3, pp.250 – 270.