Türkiye’de Güneş Enerjisinden Elektrik Üretiminde Piyasa Oluşumu: Teknoloji Yenilik Sistemi Yaklaşımı
Teknolojik Yenilik Sistemi (TYS), yeni bir teknolojinin yayılma dinamiklerinin analizi için geliştirilmiş teorik bir yaklaşımdır. Bir TYS’nin gelişimi ve onun uzun vadeli başarısı için, özellikle sektörel gelişimin başlangıcında, pazarla ilgili yapıların gelişmesi ve yerleşmesi esastır. Bu çalışmada, piyasanın nasıl oluştuğunu anlamak için Türkiye'de güneşten elektrik üretimi teknoloji yenilik sisteminde piyasa oluşumuna odaklanılmıştır. Türkiye güneş enerjisi sektöründe yeşil geçiş çalışmalarının, piyasa oluşum süreciyle birlikte başladığını vurgulamak için tam da sektör henüz gelişmeye ve piyasa oluşmaya başladığı dönemde ampirik bir çalışma yapılmıştır ve yapısal analiz, fonksiyonel analiz ve süreç analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Bu kapsamda alan araştırmasında enerji sektöründeki kilit uzmanlarla 2013-2015 döneminde elli yedi adet görüşme gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapısal analiz sonuçları, en aktif aktörlerin şirketler, danışmanlık kuruluşları, kamu kuruluşları ve gerçek kişiler olduğunu; ağların dernekler ve kooperatif kuruluşları, kurumların ise genel mevzuat ve siyasi gelişmeler olduğunu işaret etmiştir. Süreç analizi kurucu süreçlerin, her bir pazar segmenti için ‘kurumsallaşma’ ve ‘ilişki kurma’ olduğunu; piyasa işlemlerinin oluşumu için ise ‘rekabet etme’ ve ‘iletişim kurma’ olduğunu göstermiştir. İşlevsel analiz, TYS gelişiminin başlangıç fazında, pazar oluşumunun ilk aşamalarda olduğunu ancak çok hızlı geliştiğini göstermiştir.
Market Formation in Turkish Solar Electricity Generation: Technology Innovation System Approach
The Technological Innovation System (TIS) is a theoretical approach to the analysis of a new technology's diffusion dynamics. The development and establishment of market-related structures are essential for maturing a TIS and its long-term success, especially at the beginning of sectoral development. In this paper, we focus on market formation in the Turkish solar electricity generation TIS to understand how the market forms. We made an empirical study and benefitted from structural analysis, functional analysis, and process analysis to point out how green transition efforts have started with the market formation process in the Turkish solar energy sector during the first phase of sectoral development. We conducted fifty-seven interviews with key experts in the energy sector in the 2013-2015 period when the sector just started to develop. The structural analysis showed that the most active actors are companies, consultancy organizations, public organizations, and real persons; networks are associations and cooperative organizations, and institutions are general legislation and political developments. The process analysis showed that the constitutive processes are institutionalizing and associating for the formation of market segments, and competing and communicating for the formation of market transactions. The functional analysis pointed out that at the beginning of the TIS development, the market formation was in the nursing phase, but developing very fast.
- Asif, M., and Muneer, T. (2007). Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11(7), 1388–1413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2005.12.004
- Bergek, A. and Jacobbson, S. (2003). The emergence of a growth industry: a comparative analysis of the German, Dutch and Swedish wind turbine industries. U. Metcalfe, Stanley J. and Cantner (Ed.), Change, Transformation and Development (pp. 197–227). New York; London: Springer.
- Bergek, A. (2002). Shaping and Exploiting Technological Opportunities : The Case of Renewable Energy Technology in Sweden Department of Industrial Dynamics (Issue May). Chalmers University of Technology.
- Bergek, A., Jacobsson, S., Carlsson, B., Lindmark, S., and Rickne, A. (2008). Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis. Research Policy, 37(3), 407–429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2007.12.003
- Boon, W. P. C., Edler, J., and Robinson, D. K. R. (2020). Market formation in the context of transitions: A comment on the transitions agenda. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 34, 346–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2019.11.006
- Carlsson, B., Jacobsson, S., Holmén, M., and Rickne, A. (2002). Innovation systems: analytical and methodological issues. Research Policy, 31, 233–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(01)00138-X
- Carlsson, B., and Stankiewicz, R. (1991). On the nature, function and composition of technological systems. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 1(2), 93–118. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01224915
- Corbin, J. and Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (3rd Edition). London, New Delhi: Thousand Oaks : Sage Publications
- Demirbas, A. (2006). Electrical power production facilities from green energy sources. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy, 1(3), 291–301. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567240500400648
- Dewald, U., and Truffer, B. (2011). Market formation in technological innovation systems-Diffusion of photovoltaic applications in Germany. Industry and Innovation, 18(3), 285–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/13662716.2011.561028
- Dewald, U., and Truffer, B. (2012). The Local Sources of Market Formation: Explaining Regional Growth Differentials in German Photovoltaic Markets. European Planning Studies, 20(3), 397–420. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2012.651803
- Edquist, C. (2011). Design of innovation policy through diagnostic analysis: Identification of systemic problems (or failures). Industrial and Corporate Change, 20(6), 1725–1753. https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dtr060
- Erden-Topal, Y. (2016). A Policy Design Model for Market Formation of Solar and Wind Electricity Generation in Türkiye ( Unpublished PhD. Dissertation). Middle East Technical University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Ankara
- ETKB (Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources). (2013). 2013 Yılı Genel Enerji Tablosu. Access address: https://enerji.gov.tr/eigm-raporlari
- ETKB (Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources). (2016). 2016 Yılı Genel Enerji Tablosu. Access address: https://enerji.gov.tr/eigm-raporlari
- ETKB (Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources). (2020). 2020 Yılı Genel Enerji Tablosu. Access address: https://enerji.gov.tr/eigm-raporlari
- Flyvbjerg, B. (2006). Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 12(2), 219–245. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800405284363
- Galli, R. and Teubal, M. (1997). Paradigmatic shifts in national innovation systems. In C. Edquist (Ed.), Systems of Innovation. Pinter Publisher.
- Geels, F., and Raven, R. (2006). Non-linearity and expectations in niche-development trajectories: Ups and downs in Dutch biogas development (1973-2003). Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 18(3–4), 375–392. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537320600777143
- Geels, F. W. (2002). Technological transitions as evolutionary reconfiguration processes: A multi-level perspective and a case study. Research Policy, 31(8–9), 1257–1274. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00062-8
- Geels, F. W. (2004). From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems: Insights about dynamics and change from sociology and institutional theory. Research Policy, 33(6–7), 897–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2004.01.015
- Gökmen, N. ( 2021), Türkiye: New Renewable Energy Support Mechanism Announced, Address: https://www.mondaq.com/Türkiye/renewables/1031996/new-renewable-energy-support-mechanism-announced
- Gözen, M. (2015). Unlicensed Renewable Energy Generation: A Review of Regulation and Applications in the Context of Türkiye. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 5(1), 1–13.
- Hekkert, M. P., and Negro, S. O. (2009). Functions of innovation systems as a framework to understand sustainable technological change: Empirical evidence for earlier claims. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 76(4), 584–594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2008.04.013
- Hekkert, M. P. P., Suurs, R. A. A., Negro, S.O., Kuhlmann, S. and Smits, R. E. H. M. (2007). Functions of innovation systems: A new approach for analysing technological change. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74(4), 413–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2006.03.002
- Huang, Y. H., and Wu, J. H. (2009). A transition toward a market expansion phase: Policies for promoting wind power in Taiwan. Energy, 34(4), 437–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2008.12.003
- Jacobsson, S., and Bergek, A. (2004). Transforming the energy sector: The evolution of technological systems in renewable energy technology. Industrial and Corporate Change, 13(5), 815–849. https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dth032
- Jacobsson, S., and Johnson, A. (2000). The diffusion of renewable energy technology: An analytical framework and key issues for research. Energy Policy, 28(9), 625–640. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(00)00041-0
- Jacobsson, S., Sandén, B., and Bångens, L. (2004). Transforming the Energy System — the Evolution of the German Technological System for Solar Cells, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 16(1), 3–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/0953732032000199061
- Keleş, S., and Bilgen, S. (2012). Renewable energy sources in Türkiye for climate change mitigation and energy sustainability. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(7), 5199–5206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.05.026
- Kjellberg, H., and Helgesson, C. F. (2007). On the nature of markets and their practices. Marketing Theory, 7(2), 137–162. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470593107076862
- Köhler, J., Geels, F. W., Kern, F., Markard, J., Onsongo, E., Wieczorek, A., Alkemade, F., Avelino, F., Bergek, A., Boons, F., Fünfschilling, L., Hess, D., Holtz, G., Hyysalo, S., Jenkins, K., Kivimaa, P., Martiskainen, M., Mcmeekin, A., Mühlemeier, M.S., Nykvist, B. ,Pel, B. , Raven, R., Rohracher, H. , Sandén, B., Schot, J., Sovacool, B., Turnheim, B. Welch, D. and Wells, P. (2019). An agenda for sustainability transitions research : State of the art and future directions. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 31(January), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2019.01.004
- Markard, J., Hekkert, M. and Jacobsson, S. (2015). The technological innovation systems framework: Response to six criticisms. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 16, 76–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2015.07.006
- Markard, J., Raven, R. and Truffer, B. (2012). Sustainability transitions: An emerging field of research and its prospects. Research Policy, 41(6), 955–967. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2012.02.013
- Markard, J., and Truffer, B. (2008). Technological innovation systems and the multi-level perspective: Towards an integrated framework. Research Policy, 37(4), 596–615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2008.01.004
- Möllering, G. (2009). Market Constitution Analysis A New Framework Applied to Solar Power Technology Markets (09/7; MPIfG Working Paper). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1456833
- Özcan, M. (2019). Factors influencing the electricity generation preferences of Turkish citizens: Citizens’ attitudes and policy recommendations in the context of climate change and environmental impact. Renewable Energy, 132, 381–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.08.006
- Öztürk, M., Bezir, N. C., and Özek, N. (2008). Energy market structure of Türkiye. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy, 3(4), 384–395. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567240701418548
- Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (3rd Edition). London, New Delhi: Thousand Oaks : Sage Publications.
- Rotmans, J., Kemp, R. and van Asselt, M. (2001). More evolution than revolution. Foresight, 3(1), 1–17.
- Şalvarlı, H., and Şalvarlı, M. S. (2017). Trends on energy policy and sustainable development in Türkiye. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning and Policy, 12(6), 512–518. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567249.2016.1217284
- Schot, J., and Geels, F. W. (2008). Strategic niche management and sustainable innovation journeys: Theory, findings, research agenda, and policy. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 20(5), 537–554. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537320802292651
- Smith, A., Voß, J. P. and Grin, J. (2010). Innovation studies and sustainability transitions: The allure of the multi-level perspective and its challenges. Research Policy, 39(4), 435–448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2010.01.023
- TEİAŞ (Turkish Electricity Transmission Corporation) (2022), Santral Kurulu Guc Raporları ( Haziran 2022), Address: https://www.teias.gov.tr/kurulu-guc-raporlari
- Toklu, E. (2013). Overview of potential and utilization of renewable energy sources in Türkiye. Renewable Energy, 50, 456–463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.06.035
- UNFCCC. (2015). Paris Climate Change Conference-November 2015, COP 21. Adoption of the Paris Agreement. Proposal by the President., 21932 (December), 32. https://doi.org/FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1
- Van Den Bergh, J. C. J. M., Truffer, B. and Kallis, G. (2011). Environmental innovation and societal transitions: Introduction and overview. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2011.04.010
- Wieczorek, A. J. and Hekkert, M. P. (2012). Systemic instruments for systemic innovation problems: A framework for policy makers and innovation scholars. Science and Public Policy, 39(1), 74–87. https://doi.org/10.1093/scipol/scr008
- World Economic Forum. (2016). Renewable energy is not enough: it needs to be sustainable. Access address: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/09/renewable-energy-is-not-enough-it-needs-to-be-sustainable
- Yüksel, I. and Kaygusuz, K. (2011). Renewable energy sources for clean and sustainable energy policies in Türkiye. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(8), 4132–4144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.007
|| Erden Topal, Y.
& Erdil, E.
Market Formation in Turkish Solar Electricity Generation: Technology Innovation System Approach
İzmir İktisat Dergisi
, 38 (3) ,