Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin iktisadi büyümesinin nedenleri üzerine bir literatür değerlendirmesi

Amerika Birleşik Devletleri (ABD) 19. yüzyılın ilk çeyreğinde Avrupa’nın sanayileşmiş ülkeleri ile kıyaslandığında önemli sayılabilecek bir ekonomik etkinliğe sahip değildi. Ancak yaklaşık elli sene içerisinde sergilediği ekonomik performans ile İngiltere ile birlikte dünyanın en büyük imalatçısı konumuna yükseldi. Kimi tarihçilerin 2. Sanayi Devrimi olarak adlandırdiği bu ekonomik büyüme öyküsü geniş bir literatür meydana getirmiştir. Makale, farklı disiplin ve bakış açıları ile farklılaşan bu literatürü Amerikan iktisadi büyümesinin nedenlerine ilişkin makro, mikro ve sosyo-kültürel yaklaşımlar olarak üç ana başlıkta değerlendirmektedir.

A literature review on the causes of American Economic Growth

In the first quarter of the 19th century, The United States of America (USA) did not exhibit a significant economic activity, compared with industrialized countries in Europe. Yet, after nearly fifty years, she became most developed manufactu ring country of the world with United Kingdom. This economic growth story, which some historians call Second Industrial Revolution, have created a wide range of literature. This paper evaluates the literature on American economic growth in three main titles: Macro, micro, and socio-cultural approaches.

Kaynakça

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ABRAMOVITZ, M. and P. A. David; (2001), “Two Centuries of American Macroeconomic Growth From Exploitation of Resource Abundance to Knowledge-Driven Development”, SIEPR Discussion Paper No. 01-05, August.

BLACKFORD, Mansel; (1997), “Business History and Beyond,” Business and Economic History, Winter 1997, 26, p. 284.

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CHANDLER, Alfred D.; (1962), Strategy and Structure: Chap ters in the History of American Industrial Enterprise, Beard Books, Washington, DC.

CHANDLER, Alfred D.; (1977), The Visible Hand: the Mana gerial Revolution in American Business, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

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COMAN, Katherine; (1906), The Industrial History of the United States, Macmillan, New York.

DAVID, Paul A.; (1967), “The Growth of Real Product in the United States Before 1840: New Evidence, Controlled Conjec tures”, Journal of Economic History, 27. p. 155.

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DAVIS Joseph S,; (1917), Essays in the Earlier History of American Corporations, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

DAVIS, L. and J. Legler; (1966), “The Government in the Ameri can Economy 1815-1902: A Quantitative Analysis”, Journal of Economic History, p. 516.

DAVIS, Lance E. and Douglas C. North; (1971), American Eco nomic Growth and Institutional Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

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ENGERMAN, Stanley L. and Robert E. Gallman; (2001), “The Emergence of a Market Economy before 1860”, In William L. Barney (ed.), A Companion to 19th-Century America, Black well Publishing, Malden, p. 129.EVANS, George Heberton Jr.; (1948), Business Incorporations in the United States, 1800- 1943, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York.

FAULKNER, Harold Underwood; (1960), American Economic History, 8th Edition, Harper & Row, New York.

FISHLOW, Albert; (1965), American Railroads and the Trans formation of the Antebellum Economy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

FISHLOW, Albert; (1965), “Antebellum Interregional Trade Re considered”, In Ralph Andreano (ed.), New Views on American Economic Development, Schenkman, Cambridge, pp. 187- 199.

FOGEL, R. W.; (1964), Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History, Johns Hopkins Univer sity Press, Baltimore.

GALLMAN, Robert E.; (1992), “American Economic Growth before the Civil War: The Testimony of the Capital Stock Esti mates”, In Robert E. Gallman ve John Joseph Wallis, American Economic Growth and Standards of Living before the Civil War, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

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GOODRICH, Carter; (1970), “Internal Improvements Recon sidered”, The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 30, No. 2.

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GORDON, John Steele; (2004), Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of American Economic Power, Harper Collins, New York.

HABAKKUK, John; (1962), American and British Technology in the Nineteenth Century: The Search for Labour-Saving Inven tions, University Press, Cambridge.

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HATTON, Timothy J. and Jeffrey G. Williamson; (1998), The Age of Mass Migration: Causes and Economic Impact, Oxford University Press, New York.

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