The aim of this study was to test a scoring method for regular testing proposed by the authors which provides feedback on test results to each student based upon his or her increases or decreases with the previous test score (hereafter, Idio-comparative marking). The authors compared the Idio-comparative scoring system with a regular ‘individual result together with class average’ method in an eight-week long quasi-experimental study conducted with 52 first-year Japanese university students. The authors aimed to gain an understanding of whether there were any salient statistical advantages in giving class averages to students to compare with their own result, thus nullifying the Idio-comparative idea. The study used a Pretest-Posttest design, with the results of an analysis of variance suggesting there to be no statistically significant difference (p = .77) between the Idio-comparative Group and Give-average Group. The authors suggest the Idio-comparative approach as one to be considered by language teachers in order to assist with building and preserving the confidence of the students participating in the class.
Boggiano, A. K., & Pittman, T. S. (1992). Achievement and motivation: A social-developmental perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Covington, M. (1992). Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Covington, M. (1998). The will to learn. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Covington, M. (2004). Self-worth theory: Goes to college or do our motivation theories motivate? In D. M. McInerney, S. V. Etten (Eds.) Big theories revisited. (pp. 91-114).
Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Crandall, V. C., Katkozsky, W., & Crandall, V. J. (1965). Childrens’ beliefs in their own control of reinforcement in intellectual-academic situations. Child Development, 36, 91-109. http://doi.org/b6ff76
Dweck, C. S. (1975). The role of expectations and attributions in the alleviation of learned helplessness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31(4), 674-685. http://doi.org/c2zrzk
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.
Dweck, C. S., & Reppucci, N. D. (1973). Learned helplessness and reinforcement responsibility in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25(1), 109-116. http://doi.org/dtz6bq
Faul, F., & Erdfelder, E. (1992). GPOWER: A priori, post-hoc, and compromise power analyses for MS-DOS [Computer program]. Bonn, Germany: Bonn University, Department of Psychology.
Hirai, A. (2014). A Review of Four Studies on Measuring Vocabulary Knowledge. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 3 (2), 85_92. doi: 10.7820/vli.v03.2.hirai
Hoppe, F. (1930). Untersuchungen zur Handlungs – und Affektpsychologie IV [Psychological studies of action and affect IV: Success and failure]. Erfolg und Misserfolg Psychologische Forschung, 14, 1-63. http://doi.org/fsxt3p
Horwitz, E. K. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112-126. http://doi.org/dbv3tc
Kamins, M. L., & Dweck, C. S. (1999). Person versus process praise and criticism: implications for contingent self-worth and coping. Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 835-847. http://doi.org/cvfs7j
Keefe, J. W. (2007). What is personalization? Phi Delta Kappan, 89(3), 217-223. http://doi.org/b4v2
Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London, UK: Longman.
Leis, A. (November, 2013). The effects of classroom English on proficiency and self-confidence: A self-worth perspective. Presented at The Tohoku English Language Education Society Miyagi Conference, Sendai, Japan.
Leis, A. (2014). The self-confidence and performance of young learners in an EFL environment: A self-worth perspective. JES Journal, 14, 84-99. Retrieved from: https://www.academia. edu/8481565/The_Self-confidence_and_Performance_of_Young_Learners_in_an_EFL_ Environment_A_Self-worth_Perspective
Leis, A., Suzuki, W., & Ando, A. (2011). English ability and the L2 motivational self among Japanese university students. Journal of the Tohoku English Language Education Society, 31. 69-80. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/26059533/English_ability_and_the_ L2_motivational_self_among_Japanese_university_students
MacIntyre, P., & Gregersen, T. (2012). Affect: The role of language anxiety and other emotions in language learning. In S. Mercer, S. Ryan, & M. Williams (Eds.), Psychology for language learning: Insights from research, theory & practice. (pp. 103-118). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.
Mueller, C. M., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 33-52. http://doi.org/c3bnbh
Nanapi. (2015, April 18). Imasara hito ni kikenai...hansachi tte nani? [It's too late to ask, but what is a hensachi?] [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://news.livedoor.com/ article/detail/ 10020777/
Sasaki, M. (2008). The 150-year history of English language assessment in Japanese education. Language Testing, 25(1), 63-83. http://doi.org/c2d5jd
Sasaki, M. (2011). Effects of various lengths of study-abroad experience on Japanese EFL students’ L2 writing ability and motivation: A longitudinal study. TESOL Quarterly, 45(1), 81-105. http://doi.org/fq7vd4
Seligman, M. E., Maier, S. F., & Geer, J. H. (1968). Alleviation of learned helplessness in the dog. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73(3), 256-262. http://doi.org/fmkw5z
Weiner, B. (1974). Achievement motivation and attribution theory. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Wiggins, G. (1989). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 48, 18-25. http://doi.org/b4v4
Zimmermann, F., Schütte, K., Taskinen, P., & Köller, O. (2013). Reciprocal effects between adolescent externalizing problems and measures of achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 747-761. http://doi.org/b4v5