Exploring Relations between Pre-Service English Teachers' Psychological and Social Well-Being and their Perceptions of Positive Classroom Environment

This paper reports on findings of a research study that sought to investigate the relationship between classroom environment and candidate teachers' social and psychological wellbeing. Dimensions of psychological and social well-being models include constructs such as personal growth, positive relations with others, and social contribution. Such constructs have impacts on teachers' creating a positive classroom environment, which is a predictor of students' academic achievement. Therefore, this study aims at exploring whether and how psychological and social well-being shape candidate teachers' perceptions of positive classroom environment. To address the focus of this study, the data were collected from 157 senior students at the English Language Teaching department through three questionnaires. The questionnaires measured mainly three variables: Participants' perceptions of positive classroom environment and their psychological and social well-being. The relationships between these variables were tested through Structural Equation Model (SEM) using AMOS (22.0). The results of the study revealed some significant relationships between some of the dimensions only, which may indicate that the participant pre-service teachers are expected to promote positive classroom environment in some aspects, but not all. Regarding this, the study provides valuable suggestions to be included in teacher development programs.


Altaf, M. (2015). Exploring classroom environment through perception-an overview of various inventories. International Journal of Novel Research in Education and Learning, 2(3), 23- 32.

Al-Qutop, M. Y., & Harrim, H. (2011). Quality of worklife human well-being linkage: Integrated conceptual framework. International Journal of Business and Management, 6, 193-205.

Bartelheim, F. J., & Conn, D.R. (2014). Pre-service teachers' perceptions of an ideal classroom environment. Current Issues in Education 17(3), 1-10.

Boren, R., Callahan, C., & Peugh, J. (2011). Out with the old, in with the new: Factor analyses of a classroom environment measure. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(3), 214- 224. http://doi.org/cn25qq

Bullough, R. V., & Hall-Kenyon, K. (2012). On teacher hope, sense of calling, and commitment to teaching. Teacher Education Quarterly, 39(2), 7-27.

Bullough, R. V., & Pinnegar, S. (2009). The happiness of teaching (as eudemonia): disciplinary knowledge and the threat of performativity. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 15(2), 241-256.

Day, C., Elliott, B., & Kington, A. (2005). Reform, standards and teacher identity: Challenges of sustaining commitment. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21,563-577. http://doi.org/b4t9pg

Envick, B. R. (2012). Investing in a healthy workforce: The impact of physical wellness on psychological well-being and the critical implications for worker performance. Academy of Health Care Management Journal, 8(1), 21-32.

Evertson, C. M., Emmer, E. T., & Worsham, M. E. (2006). Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers (7th Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Fisher, D. L., & Fraser, B. J. (1983). A comparison of actual and preferred classroom environment as perceived by science teachers and students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20, 55-61.

Fisher, D. L., & Fraser, B. J. (1985). Using short forms of several classroom environment scales to assess and improve classroom psychosocial environment. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of National Association for Research in Science Teaching, French Lick, Indiana, April.

Fraser, B. J. (1998). Classroom environment instruments: Development, validity and applications. Learning Environment Research, 1, 7-33.

Fraser, B. J., & Fisher, D. L. (1983) Development and Validation of Short Forms of some instruments measuring students' perceptions of actual and preferred classroom learning environment. Science Education, 67, 115 - 131.

Goddard, R. G., Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2004). Collective efficacy: Theoretical development, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational Researcher, 33, 3-13.

Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 495-513. http://doi.org/bbvw5s

Ilgan, A, Ozu-Cengiz, O., Ata, A, & Akram, M. (2015). The relationship between teachers' psychological well-being and their quality of school work life. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 3(2), 159-181.

Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79, 491-525. http://doi.org/cdxv5f

Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61(2), 121-140.

Keyes, C. L. M., & Magyar-Moe, J. L. (2003). The measurement and utility of adult subjective well-being. In S. Lopez. & C. R. Snyder (Eds.) Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 411-425). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

La Paro, K. M., Hamre, B., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Pianta, R. C., Bryant, D. M., Early, D. M., Burchinal, M. (2009). Quality in kindergarten classrooms: observational evidence for the need to increase children's learning opportunities in early education classrooms. Early Education and Development, 20(4), 657-692. http://doi.org/fjbptd

La Paro, K., & Pianta R. C. (2003). CLASS: Classroom Assessment Scoring System. Charlottesville, VA: National Center for Early Development and Learning.

McCallum, F., & Price, D. (2010). Well teachers, well students. Journal of Student Wellbeing, 4(1), 19-34.

Pillay, H., Goddard, R., & Wilss, L. (2005). Well-being, burnout and competence: Implications for teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 30(2). http://doi.org/brhn

Rathi, N. (2009). Relationship of quality of work life with employees' psychological well-being. International Journal of Business Insights & Transformation, 54(2), 53-60.

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological wellbeing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081. http://doi.org/dvp4hb

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719-727. http://doi.org/bsnq6p

Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14. http://doi.org/dt4zs8

Sleegers, P. (1999). Professional identity, school reform, and burnout: Some reflections on teacher burnout. In R. Vandenberghe and A. M Huberman (Eds.), Understanding and Preventing Teacher Burnout: A Sourcebook of International Research and Practice (pp. 247- 255). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., & Sigmon, D. R. (2002). Hope theory: A member of the positive psychology family. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 257-276). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Vazquez, C., Hervas, G., Rahona, J. J., & Gomez, D. (2009). Psychological well-being and health contributions of positive psychology. Annuary of Clinical and Health Psychology, 5, 15-27.

Kaynak Göster