Öz Enterococci are commensal organisms of human and animals, and may cause diseases in particular conditions. Several virulence factors are responsible in the production of diseases. The aim of this study was to isolate enterococci from fish and to determine virulence factors of the isolates. A total of 26 (13%) Enterococcus faecalis strains were isolated from live, moribund and dead fish collected from fish farms in Aegian Region. Cytolysin and gelatinase activities and aggregation substance production of these strains were examined.Cytolysin production was not detected in any of E. faecalis strains. Of 26 strains tested, 27% was found to produce aggregation substance. Gelatinase activity was found in 11.5% of strains. The presence of strains with important virulence factors in enterococci from fish was established. It was suggested that these strains have the potential of producing disease in human and animals.
1. Araujo C, Munoz-Atienza E, Hernandez PE, Herranz C, Cintas LM, Igrejas G, Poeta P, (2015). Evaluation of Enterococcus spp. from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), Feed, and Rearing Environment Against Fish Pathogens. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 12(4), 311-322.
2. Bensoussan R, Weiss R, Laverdiere M, (1998). Vancomycinresistant enterococcus. Scand J Gastroenterol. 33, 1233- 1238.
3. Carneiro CS, Evangelista-Barreto NS, da Silveira-Oliveira CS, Silva IP, de Oliveira TAS, Saraiva MAF, (2015). Antagonistic Activity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Potential Virulence Factors of Enterococcus faecalis. J Life Sci. 9, 318-326.
4. Çetinkaya Y, Falk P, Mayhall CG, (2000). Vancomycinresistant enterococci. Clin Microbiol Rev. 13, 686-707.
5. Cheng W, Chen JC, (1998). Isolation and characterization of an Enterococcus-like bacterium causing muscle necrosis and mortality in Makrobranchium rosenbergii in Taiwan. Dis Aquat Organ. 34(2), 93-101.
6. Chow JW, Thal LA, Perri MB, Vazquez JA, Donabedian SM, Clewell, DB, Zervos MJ, (1993). Plasmid-associated hemolysin and aggregation substance production contribute to virulence in experimental enterococcal endocarditis. Antimicrob Agent Chemother. 37, 2474-2477.
7. Clewell DB, (1993). Bacterial sex pheromone-induced plasmid transfer. Cell 73, 9-12.
8. Depardieu F, Perichon B, Courvalin P, (2004). Detection of the van alphabet and identification of enterococci and staphylococci at the species level by multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 42, 5857-5860.
9. Devriese LA, Hommez J, Leavens H, Pot B, Vandamme P, Haesebrouck F, (1999). Identification of aesculin-hydrolyzing streptococci, lactococci, aerococci and enterococci from subclinical intramammary infections in dairy cows. Vet Microbiol. 70, 87-94.
10. Eaton TJ, Gasson MJ, (2001). Molecular screening of Enterococcus virulence determinants and potential for genetic exchange between food and medical isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 67, 1628-1635.
11. Eldar A, Goria M, Ghittino C, Zlotkin A, Bercovier H, (1999). Biodiversity of Lactococcus garviae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia. Appl Environ Microbiol. 65(3), 1005-1008.
12. Elsner HA, Soottka I, Mack D, Claussen M, Laufs R, Wirth R, (2000). Virulence factors of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium blood culture isolates. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 19, 39-42.
13. Frick IM, Morgelin M, Bjorck L, (2000). Virulent aggregates of Streptococcus pyogenes are generated by homophilic protein-protein interactions. Mol Microbiol. 37,1232-1247.
14. Gentry-Weeks CR, Karkhoff-Schweizer R, Pikis A, Estay M, Keith JM, (1999). Survival of Enterococcus faecalis in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Infect Immun. 57, 2160- 2165.
15. Gülhan T, Aksakal A, Ekin İH, Savaşan S, Boynukara B, (2006). Virulence Factors of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from humans and pets. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 30, 477-482.
16. Harwood VJ, Brownell M, Perusek W, Whitlock JE, (2001). Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. isolated from wastewater and chicken feces in the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol. 67, 4930-4933.
17. Hirt H, Erlandsen SL, Dunny GM, (2000). Heterologous inducible expression of Enterococcus faecalis pCF10 aggregation substance asc10 in Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus gordonii contributes to cell hydrophobicity and adhesion to fibrin. J Bacteriol. 182, 2299-2306.
18. Huycke MM, Spiegel CA, Gilmore MS, (1991). Bacteremia caused by hemolytic, high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agent Chemother. 35, 1626-1634.
19. Ike Y, Hashimoto H, Clewell DB, (1987). High incidence of hemolysin production by Enterococcus faecalis strains associated with human parenteral infections. J Clin Microbiol. 25, 1524-1528.
20. Isenmann R, Schwarz M, Rozdzinski E, Marre R, Beger HG, (2000). Aggregation substance promotes colonic mucosal invasion of Enterococcus faecalis in an ex vivo model. J Surg Res. 89, 132-138.
21. Jackson CR, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Barrett JB, (2004). Use of a genus- and species-specific multiplex PCR for identification of enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 42, 3558-3565.
22. Jett B, Huycke M, Gilmore M, (1994). Virulence of enterococci. Clin Microbiol Rev. 7, 462-478.
23. Jett B, Jensen HG, Nordquist RE, Gilmore MS, (1992). Contribution of the pAD1-encoded cytolysin to the severity of experimental Enterococcus faecalis endophthamitis. Infect Immun. 60, 2445-2452.
24. Ke D, Picard FJ, Martineau F, Ménard C, Roy PH, Ouellette M, Bergeron MG, (1999). Development of a PCR assay for rapid detection of enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 37, 3497- 3503.
25. Koneman EW, Allen SD, Janda WM, Schreckenberger PC, Winn WC, (1997). Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Lippincott, New York, Fifth Edition, pp: 606.
26. Mundy LM, Sahm DF, Gilmore M, (2000). Relationships between enterococcal virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 13, 513-522.
27. Murray BE, Weinstock GM, (1999). Enterococci: the new aspects of an old organism. Proceed Assoc Am Physicians. 111, 328-334.
28. Olmested S, Dunny G, Erlandsen S, Wells C, (1994). A plasmid-encoded surface protein on Enterococcus faecalis augments its internalization by cultured intestinal epiethelial cells. J Infect Dis. 170, 1549-1556.
29. Petts DN, Noble WC, Howell SA, (1997). Potential for gene transfer among enterococci from a single patient and the possibility of confounding typing results. J Clin Microbiol. 35, 1722-1727.
30. Pinto B, Pierotti R, Canale G, Reali D, (1999). Characterization of faecal streptococci as indicators of faecal pollution and distribution in the environment. Lett Appl Microbiol. 29, 258-263.
31. Rakita RM, Vanek NN, Jacques-Palaz K, (1999). Enterococcus faecalis bearing aggregation substance is resistant to killing by human neutrophils despite phagocytosis and neutrophil activation. Infect Immun. 67, 6067-6075.
32. Romalde JL, Magarinos B, Nunez S, Barja JL, Toranzo AE, (1996). Host range susceptibility of Enterococcus sp. strains isolated from diseased turbot: possible routes of infection. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62, 607-611.
33. Schlievert PM, Gahr PJ, Assimacopoulos AP, Dinges MM, Stoehr JA, Harmala JW, Hirt H, Dunny GM, (1998). Aggregation and binding substances enhance pathogenicity in rabbit models of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis. Infect Immun. 66, 218-223.
34. Su YA, Sulavik MC, He P, Makinen KK, Makinen PL, Fiedler S, Wirth R, Clewell DB, (1991). Nucleotide sequence of the gelatinase gene (gelE) from Enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens. Infect Immun. 59, 415-420.
35. Thal LA, Chow JW, Mahayni R, Bonilla H, Perri MB, Donabedian SA, Silverman J, Taber S, Zervos MJ, (1995). Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci of animal origin. Antimicrob Agent Chemother. 39, 2112- 2115.
36. Vanek NN, Simon SI, Jacques-Palaz K, Mariscalco MM, Dunny GM, Rakita RM, (1999). Enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance promotes opsonin-independent binding to human neutrophils via a complement receptor type 3-mediated mechanism. FEMS Immun Med Microbiol. 26, 49-60.