Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, perceived parental rearing styles and defense mechanisms. Besides, it was investigated how grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism scores differ in terms of demographic variables such as gender and age.Method: The study was carried out with 508 participants between the ages of 18-65 determined by the appropriate sampling method. 271 of the participants were female (53.3%), 237 of them were male (46.7%). The data were collected through a battery including Demographic Information Form, Pathological Narcissism Inventory, Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, Abbreviated Perceived Parental Attitudes Scale-Child Form, Defense Style Questionnaire-40, and Splitting Scale.Results: Statistical analyses revealed that while there was no significant difference in vulnerable narcissism scores between male and female participants, male participants had significantly higher scores in grandiose narcissism. The findings indicate a decrease in both vulnerable and grandiose narcissism as the age of the participants increase. The regression analyses showed that grandiose narcissism scores were predicted by the paternal rejection and the maternal emotional warmth as perceived parental attitudes, and by the immature defense style, splitting defense mechanism, and neurotic defense style as defense styles; vulnerable narcissism scores were predicted by the paternal rejection, maternal overprotection, splitting defense, and all forms of defense.Conclusion: Findings that narcissistic personality may be correlated with some inadequate parental attitudes and more frequent use of defense mechanisms were discussed within the framework of this topic. In addition, the results were elaborated regarding the theoretical framework of narcissism, and how it can be used in clinical practice with narcissistic individuals.
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