Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
"Mehmet Sadık Rıfat Paşa ve 19. Yüzyıl Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'na Batılılaşma Bağlamında Kameralizmin Girişi" başlıklı bu çalışma, 1837-1839 yılları arasında, Avusturya İmparatorluğu'nun başkenti Viyana'da sefirlik görevi yapmış olan Mehmet Sadık Rıfat Paşa'nın, risalelerinde dile getirdiği, "kameralist" görüşler üzerine odaklanmıştır. Paşa'nın risalelerinde savunduğu ve Osmanlı Sultanı'na, Osmanlı topraklarında da benzer politikaların uygulanmasını salık verdiği görüşler, Osmanlı tarihi açısından oldukça önemlidir. Çünkü Paşa'nın dile getirdiği bu görüşler, kısa bir süre sonra ilan edilecek olan Tanzimat Fermanı'nın ana temalarıyla, genel anlamda bir paralellik içerisindedir. Paşa'nın ardılları, öğrencileri, Paşa'nın fikirsel düzlemdeki görüşlerinin bir kısmını, Tanzimat Dönemi ile birlikte hayata aktarmışlardır. Paşa risalelerinde Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nda da uygulanmasını salık verdiği fikirleri, hiçbir zaman "kameralizm" başlığı altında sunmamıştır. Paşa'nın yaşadığı dönemde, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun siyasi anlamda en büyük sorunu, toplumda yaşanan ayrışmalardır. Paşa'nın temel sorunsalı, çok uluslu Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun sürüklendiği parçalanmayı sona erdirip, Osmanlı toprakları üzerinde siyasi birliği sağlayabilmektir. Öte yandan Paşa, söz konusu siyasi birliğin sağlanması için, siyasi tedbirlerin yanı sıra ekonomik tedbirlerin hızla alınması gerektiğinin de bilincindedir. Avusturya'nın da benzer sorunlar yaşadığını ve bu sorunları, kameralist politikalarla aştığını gören Paşa, bir devlet adamı kimliğiyle, kameralizmin teorisiyle uğraşmaktan ziyade, doğrudan uygulamalarına ve uygulamaların başarılı sonuçlarına dikkat çekmek istemiştir.
"Mehmet Sadık Rıfat Pasha and the Introduction of Cameralism to 19th Century Ottoman Empire within the scope of Westernisation" titled study focuses on "cameralist" ideas mentioned in pamphlets by Sadık Rıfat Pasha who served as an ambassador in Austrian Empire capital Vienna between 1837-1839. Ideas advocated recommended to the Sultan to apply similar policies in Ottoman Land by the Pasha in his pamphlets are very important for Ottoman history. This is because these ideas mentioned by with the Tanzimat Reform Era, Pasha's successors and students actualised some of Pasha's intellectual ideas. Therefore, it is important to examine Sadık Rıfat Pasha's ideas which, in essence, emphasise the realisation of Westernisation in Ottoman Empire through cameralist policies. First of all it should be noted that Sadık Rıfat Pasha was not a scientist or a philosopher, he was a statesman. Pasha has never presented his ideas recommended in his pamphlets for Ottoman Empire under "cameralism" title. In his time, the greatest political problem of Ottoman Empire was the disintegration among the society. In other words, main problematic for Pasha was to end the schism the multinational Ottoman Empire was faced with and to ensure the political union in Ottoman land. On the other hand, Pasha recognised the fact that in order to ensure said political union, economic measures had to be taken as well as political measures. Seeing that Austria overcame similar problems with cameralist policies Pasha, as a statesman, pointed out direct practices and and the successful results of these practices rather than dealing with the theory of cameralism. There are remarkable similarities between political and economic infrastructures and problems of 19th century Austria and Ottoman Empire. Due to his personal relationship with Austrian President Metternich after whom an era is named, Sadık Rıfat Pasha had the opportunity to listen to the cameralist system practised in Austria from the head of the country himself. In general cameralism is a kind of merchantilism and aims for increasing the efficiency and productivity of the country, and predicts a restriction in imports and increase in exports as much as possible. Education is another important issue for cameralism in respect to generating quality, productive people in society. And in order for achieving these targets, political union must be obtained and people's trusting political authority must be ensured. According to the Pasha's observations, Austria has opened this road by implementing constitutional state principle. With the justice and equality established through a constitutional state, discontents of the society have been eliminated. Also related to the constitutional state principle, security of life and property for the subjects have led the way to commerce for the subjects. By promoting exports and restricting imports, national production in Austria has been increased and methods that will turn the economy upside down such as borrowing have been avoided. Considering the Austrian example, the Pasha insisted on the need for Ottoman Empire to be a constitutional state. He suggested to the Sultan that by adopting the constitutional state principle, safety of life and property for the subjects would be achieved, the discontents of people in Ottoman land would be eliminated and insurgences in the multinational empire would be suppressed. On economical terms, as in the Austrian example, he advocated increasing efficiency, restricting imports, promoting exports, restraining spending on luxury, and not tampering with the value of money. In the Pasha's writings, these economical measures have been shown both as a phase to set up the infrastructure for political unity, and as a tool to stop economic collapse. Sharing cameralism's emphasis on education, the Pasha frequently mentioned carrying the educational levels of both subjects and the rulers beyond literacy. Briefly, putting the Pasha's ideas together we see a statesman who wishes for the implementation of cameralist policies. Cameralist ideas of the Pasha have been realised with the practices of his successors and students. The Rescript of Gülhane initiating the Tanzimat Reform Era is a script predicting the constitutional state principle, ensuring the subjects' safety of life and property. Especially through end of the Era, there have been some reforms on education which is an issue frequently mentioned by the Pasha. In this regard, particularly in terms of politics, Tanzimat Reform Era coincides substantially with cameralist policies. However, it should also be noted that the economic measures suggested by the Pasha fall outside general terms of economic policy adopted during Tanzimat Reform Era. Practices to support cameralist economic policy remain limited in this period. None the less, it can be concluded that ideas mentioned by the Pasha in his pamphlets comply with cameralist policy and especially political aspect and, to some degree, economical aspect of these ideas have been actualised in Tanzimat Reform Era.