Türkiye yükseköğretim yeterlilikler çerçevesi ve mimarlık eğitimi: Uygulamada karşılaşılan sorunlar ve güçlükler

Türkiye Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (TYYÇ) Bologna reformları bağlamında Yükseköğretim Kurulu (YÖK) tarafından Mayıs 2009’da benimsendi. Yükseköğretim Genel Kurulu, 21 Ocak 2010’da TYYÇ’nin yükseköğretim kurumlarında ve programlar düzeyinde uygulanmasına karar verdi. Kararda bu sürecin Aralık 2012’ye kadar tamamlanması öngörülüyordu. TYYÇ için hem Avrupa Yükseköğretim Alanı Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (QF-EHEA, 2005), hem de yaşam boyu öğrenim için Avrupa Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (EQF- LLL, 2008) referans alınmıştı. EQF-LLL, Avrupa Birliği’nin (AB) Lizbon Stratejisi hedefleri doğrultusunda eğitim ve öğretimde Avrupa işbirliğini kolaylaştırmak üzere geliştirilmişti. Bu makalede TYYÇ’nin “temel alanlar” ve mimarlık programları düzeyinde uygulanmasında karşılaşılan bazı belirsizlikler, sorunlar ve güçlükler ele alınmaktadır. Avrupa yeterlilikler çerçevelerinin, Avrupa Yükseköğretim Alanı (EHEA) ile Eğitim ve Öğretim 2010 çalışma programı (ET 2010) ve Eğitim ve Öğretim 2020 stratejik çerçevesinin (ET 2020) hedefleri açısından önemine ilişkin tartışmanın ardından, mimarlık alanındaki yeterlilikleri ilgilendiren iki sorun alanı üzerinde durulmaktadır: i) TYYÇ’nin getirdiği terminoloji ve sınıflama sorunları; ii) Avrupa yeterlilikler çerçeveleri ile AB’de mesleki yeterliliklerin tanınması hakkındaki mevzuatı yeniden düzenleyen 2005/36/EC sayılı Direktif (Mesleki Yeterlilikler Direktifi) arasındaki bağlantısızlık nedeniyle, mimarlığın da aralarında yer aldığı yedi “sektörel” meslek alanındaki yeterliliklerin tanımlanmasında karşılaşılan güçlükler. Makalede bütünleşmiş bir Avrupa Yükseköğretim Alanı’nın oluşturulması konusunda ilerleme sağlamak üzere Mesleki Yeterlilikler Direktifi’nin modernizasyonu için yapılan çalışmalardaki en son gelişmeler de gözden geçirilmektedir.

National Qualifications framework for higher education in Turkey, and architectural education: Problems and challenges of implementation

The Council of Higher Education (CoHE) adopted the National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in Turkey (NQF-HETR) in May 2009, as part of the Bologna reforms. In January 2010, the CoHE decided full implementation of the NQF-HETR at institutional and program levels and in this decision, it was foreseen that the process would be completed by the end of December 2012. The NQF- HETR has been aligned both to the overarching Framework for Qualifications in the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA, 2005) and to the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning (EQF-LLL, 2008). The latter was introduced to facilitate the European cooperation in education and training, in line with the goals of the European Union’s (EU) Lisbon Strategy. This paper focuses on some of the problems that have become apparent during the NQF-HETR’s implementation at the levels of “narrow fields of education” and architecture programs, and the challenges ahead. Following a discussion of the significance of the two European frameworks in light of the goals of the EHEA, the Education and Training 2010 work programme (ET 2010) and the strategic framework for European cooperation in Education and Training (ET 2020), it covers two problem areas concerning qualifications in architecture: i) terminological and classificatory problems entailed by the NQF-HETR; ii) the lack of alignment between the European qualifications frameworks and the EU Directive on the Recognition of Professional Qualifications (Directive EC/2005/36) that covers seven “sectoral professions” including architecture. The paper also reviews the latest developments for the modernization of the EU Directive in order to provide progression in forming an integrated European Higher Education Area.

Kaynakça

Avrupa Birliği Genel Sekreterliği (ABGS) (2009). Avrupa Birliği Terimleri Sözlüğü. Erişim: h p://www.abgs.gov.tr/files/Sozluk/ glossary_for_the_european_union.pdf

Avrupa Birliği Konseyi (Council of the EU) (2009). Council conclusions of 12 May 2009 on a strategic framework for European Coopera on in Educa on and Training (‘ET 2020’). Official Journal of the European Union, 2009/C 119/02. Erişim: h p://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C: 2009:119:0002:0010:en:PDF

Avrupa Birliği Konseyi (Council of the EU) (2011). Council conclusions on the role of educa on and training in the implementa on of the ‘Europe 2020’ Strategy. Official Journal of the European Union, 2011/C 70/01. Erişim: h p://eur-lex. europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2011:070:FULL :EN:PDF

Avrupa Komisyonu (EC) (2001). Communica on from the Commission: Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a reality (COM(2001) 678 final). Brüksel. Erişim: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ. do?uri=COM:2001:0678:FIN:EN:PDF

Avrupa Komisyonu (EC) (2011a). Consulta on paper on the Professional Qualifica ons Direc ve. Brüksel. Erişim: h p:// ec.europa.eu/internal_market/consultations/docs/2011/ professional_qualifica ons/consulta on_paper_en.pdf

Avrupa Komisyonu (EC) (2011b). Green paper: Modernising the Professional Qualifica ons Direc ve (COM(2011) 367 final). Brüksel. Erişim: h p://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0367:FIN:en:PDF

Avrupa Komisyonu (EC) (2011c). Evalua on of the Professional Qualifica ons Direc ve (Direc ve 2005/36/EC). Brüksel. Erişim: h p://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/qualifica ons/ docs/news/20110706-evalua on-direc ve-200536ec_en.pdf

Avrupa Komisyonu (EC) (2011d). Public consulta on on the modernisa on of the Professional Qualifica ons Direc ve (Direc ve 2005/36/EC): Summary of responses. Brüksel. Erişim: h p://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/qualifica ons/ docs/news/20110706-summary-replies-public-consulta on- pdq_en.pdf

Avrupa Komisyonu (EC) (2011e). Proposal for a direc ve of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Direc ve 2005/36/EC on the recogni on of professional qualifica ons and Regula on on administra ve coopera on through the Internal Market Informa on System. COM(2011) 883 final. Erişim: h p://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/qualifica ons/ docs/policy_developments/modernising/COM2011_883_ en.pdf

Avrupa Komisyonu (EC) (2012a). Proposal of the Commission amending Direc ve 2005/36/EC: Explana ons. DG Internal Market and Services. h p://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/ qualifications/docs/conferences/20120202-modernisation/ presenta on_en.pdf

Avrupa Komisyonu (EC) (2012b). European Skills/Competences, Qualifica ons and Occupa ons (ESCO). Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion. Erişim: h p://ec.europa.eu/social/main. jsp?catId=568

Avrupa Konseyi (Council of the European Communi es) (1985). Council Direc ve of 10 June 1985 on the mutual recogni on of diplomas, cer ficates and other evidence of formal qualifica ons in architecture...(85/384/EEC). Erişim: h p:// eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/consleg /1985/ L/01985L0384-20040501-en.pdf

Avrupa Mesleki Öğre mi Geliş rme Merkezi (CEDEFOP) (2011). Voca onal educa on at higher qualifica on levels. Luxembourg: Publica on Office of the European Union. Erişim: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/5515_en.pdf

Avrupa Mimarlar Konseyi (ACE) & (EAAE) Avrupa Mimarlık Eği mi Birliği (2007). ACE – EAAE joint working party: Direc ve 2005/36/EC - Posi on statement on minimum dura on of studies. Erişim: h p://www.mimarlarodasi.org.tr/UIKDocs/ ace-eaae-architecturaleduca on.pdf

Avrupa Mimarlar Konseyi (ACE) (2006). Access to the profession – Commission staff working document on European Qualifica ons Framework: ACE Posi on Paper. Erişim: h p://ec.europa.eu/ educa on/policies/educ/eqf/results/archicouncil_en.pdf

Avrupa Mimarlar Konseyi (ACE) (2012a). Architects’ Council of Europe Proposed amendments to the Proposal for a Direc ve of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Direc ve 2005/36/EC on the Recogni on of Professional Qualifica ons and on regula on of administra ve coopera on through the Internal Market Informa on System. Erişim: http://www.ace-cae.eu/public/contents/getdocument/ content_id/1419

Avrupa Mimarlar Konseyi (ACE) (2012b). ACE Info. 60. Erişim: http://www.architect.be/files/pdf/nieuws/201210_ACE_ Info_3_12_EN_Final%20(2).pdf

Avrupa Parlamentosu (2012). Report on the contribu on of the European ins tu ons to the consolida on and progress of the Bologna Process (2011/2180(INI)). Commi ee on Culture and Educa on, Raportör: Luigi Berlinguer. Erişim: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc. do?type=REPORT&reference=A7-2012-0035&language=EN

Avrupa Parlamentosu (2013). Report: Proposal for a direc ve of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Direc ve 2005/36/EC on the recogni on of professional qualifica ons – Dra European Parliament legisla ve resolu on. Erişim: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/ac vi es/cont/20 1302/20130218ATT61284/20130218ATT61284EN.pdf

Avrupa Parlamentosu & Avrupa Birliği Konseyi (Council of the EU). (2005). Direc ve 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recogni on of professional qualifica ons. Official Journal of the European Union. L 255/22. Erişim: h p://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:255:0011:0021:EN:PDF

Avrupa Parlamentosu & Avrupa Birliği Konseyi (Council of the EU). (2006). Recommenda on of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (2006/962/EC). Official Journal of the European Union, L 394. Erişim: h p://www.oapee.es/documentum/MECPRO/ Web/weboapee/servicios/documentos/documentacion- convocatoria-2008/l39420061230en00100018. pdf?documentId=0901e72b80004481

Avrupa Parlamentosu & Avrupa Birliği Konseyi (Council of the EU). (2008). Recommenda ons of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the European Qualifica ons Framework for Lifelong Learning. Official Journal of the European Union, (2008/C 111/1-4). Erişim: h p://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?ur i=oj:c:2008:111:0001:0007:en:pdf

Avrupa Üniversite Birliği (EUA) (2007a). Qualifica ons in the sectoral professions: Direc ve 2005-36-EC and the Bologna Process (Background paper to EUA workshop on sectoral professions). Brüksel. Erişim: h p://www.eua.be/eua-work- and-policy-area/building-the-european-higher-education- area/bologna-and-professional-qualifica ons.aspx

Avrupa Üniversite Birliği (EUA) (2007b). Workshop on the sectoral professions (Report of Mee ng). Brüksel. h p://www.eua. be/eua-work-and-policy-area/building-the-european-higher- educa on-area/bologna-and-professional-qualifica ons.aspx

Avrupa Üniversite Birliği (EUA) (2010). The Bologna Process and Direc ve 2005/36/EC on the Recogni on of Professional Qualifica ons: Is there scope for crea ve interac on? (Report of the mee ng held in the European Parliament on 14 October 2010). Erişim: h p://www.eua.be/eua-work-and-policy-area/ building-the-european-higher-educa on-area/bologna-and- professional-qualifica ons.aspx

Avrupa Üniversite Birliği (EUA) (2011) Modernising the Professional Qualifica ons Direc ve: European University Associa on response to European Commission’s Consulta on on Green Paper COM(2011)367, Brüksel. h p://www.eua.be/eua-work- and-policy-area/building-the-european-higher-education- area/bologna-and-professional-qualifica ons.aspx

Avrupa Üniversite Birliği (EUA) (2012a). EUA briefing note on the Commission’s proposed amendments to Direc ve 2005/36/ EC on the Recogni on of Professional Qualifica ons. Erişim: http://www.eua.be/eua-work-and-policy-area/building-the- european-higher-educa on-area/bologna-and-professional- qualifica ons.aspx

Avrupa Üniversite Birliği (EUA). (2012b). EUA posi on paper on the Commission’s proposed amendments to Direc ve 2005/36/ EC on the Recogni on of Professional Qualifications. Erişim: http://www.eua.be/eua-work-and-policy-area/building-the- european-higher-educa on-area/bologna-and-professional- qualifica ons.aspx

Avrupa Üniversite Birliği (EUA) (2012c). Recogni on of professional qualifica ons – EUA Update no. 10. Erişim: http://www.eua. be/eua-work-and-policy-area/building-the-european-higher- educa on-area/bologna-and-professional-qualifica ons.aspx

Bergen Bildirisi (2005). The European Higher Educa on Area – Achieving the goals. Communiqué of the Conference of European Ministers Responsible for Higher Educa on, Bergen.

Berlin Bildirisi (2003). Realising the European Higher Educa on Area. Communiqué of the Conference of Ministers Responsible for Higher Educa on, Berlin.

Bologna Bildirgesi (1999). The European Higher Educa on Area: The Bologna Declara on. Joint Declara on of the European Ministers of Educa on.

Bologna Yeterlilikler Çerçeveleri Çalışma Grubu (Bologna Working Group on Qualifica ons Frameworks). (2005). A framework for Qualifica ons of the European Higher Educa on Area. Copenhagen: Ministry of Science Technology and Innova on. Erişim: http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/Documents/050218_ QF_EHEA.pdf

Bologna Yeterlilikler Çerçeveleri Çalışma Grubu (Bologna Working Group on Qualifica ons Frameworks). (2012). Report by the EHEA Working Group on Qualifica ons Frameworks. Erişim: h p://www.ehea.info/Uploads/(1)/Qualifica ons%20 Frameworks%20Working%20Group%20Report.pdf

Broek, S., Buiskool, B-J., van Oploo, M., & de Visser S. (2012). State of play of the European Qualifica ons Framework implementa on. Brüksel: European Parliament. Erişim: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/cult/ studiesdownload.html?languageDocument=EN&file=73578

Budapeşte-Viyana Bildirgesi (2010). Budapest-Vienna Declara on on the European Higher Educa on Area.

Bükreş Bildirisi (2012). Making the Most of Our Poten al: Consolida ng the European Higher Educa on Area. Bucharest Communiqué.

Davies, H. (2006). The Bologna Process and the recogni on of professional qualifications. EUA Bologna handbook (B 2.4-1), Berlin: Raabe Verlag.

Davies, H. (2009). The Bologna Process and the recogni on of professional qualifica ons: An update on developments”, EUA Bologna handbook, Ar cle 3.3-1, Berlin: Raabe Verlag.

Garben, S. (Mart 2010). The Bologna Process: From a European Law perspec ve. European Law Journal, 16(2), 186–210. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0386.2009.00503.x

Horan, J. (2011). Public consulta on on the Professional Qualifica ons Direc ve. Erişim: http://ec.europa.eu/internal_ market/consultations/2011/professional_qualifications_ en.htm

Howat, C., Ulicna, D., & Harris, P. (2011). Final Report - Study evalua ng the Professional Qualifica ons Direc ve against recent educa onal reforms in EU Member States. A report submi ed by GHK in associa on with Danish Technological Ins tute (DTI). Erişim: h p://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/ qualifica ons/docs/policy_developments/final_report_en.pdf

Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve Bildirisi (2009). The Bologna Process 2020 - The European Higher Educa on Area in the New Decade. Communiqué of the Conference of European Ministers Responsible for Higher Educa on.

Lizbon Antlaşması (2008). Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Func oning of the European Union. Official Journal of the European Union, C 115/120,121. Erişim: h p://eur-lex.europa. eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2008:115:0047:0199:E N:PDF

Lizbon Sözleşmesi (ETS No. 165) (1997). Conven on on the Recogni on of Qualifica ons concerning Higher Educa on in the European Region. Explanatory Report. Erişim: http:// conven ons.coe.int/Treaty/en/reports/Html/165.htm

Mesleki Yeterlilikler Kurumu (MYK) (2012). Türkiye Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (Taslak). İs şare belgesi. Ankara. Erişim: http:// www.myk.gov.tr/index.php/tr/tyc

Nogueira, A. M. (2012). Education and voca onal training policy. Fact Sheets on the European Union. Erişim: http://www. europarl.europa.eu/ u/pdf/en/FTU_4.17.1.pdf

Shapiro, H., Lauritzen, J. R. K., & Irving, P. (2011). Emerging skills and competences: A transatlan c study. EU-US study for the European Commission. Erişim: http://ec.europa.eu/ educa on/more-informa on/doc/2011/skills_en.pdf

Sursock, A., & Smidt, H. (2010). Trends 2010: A decade of change in European higher educa on. Brüksel: EUA. http://www. eua.be/eua-work-and-policy-area/building-the-european- higher-educa on-area/trends-in-european-higher-educa on/ trends-vi.aspx

T.C. Avrupa Birliği Bakanlığı (2003). 2003 Yılı ulusal programı. http://www.abgs.gov.tr/index.php?p=196

T.C. Avrupa Birliği Bakanlığı (2012). Eğitim ve Kültür. http://www. abgs.gov.tr/index.php?l=1&p=91

Tuning HUMART (2012). Tuning sectoral qualifica ons frameworks for the humani es and the arts. Final report 2010 – 2011. Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto. http://www.unideusto.org/ tuningeu/images/stories/HUMART/SQF_HUMART_Final_ Report_2010-2011.pdf

UNESCO (1997). Interna onal Standard Classifica on of Educa on ISCED 1997. Erişim: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/ Documents/isced97-en.pdf

Yükseköğre m Kurulu Başkanlığı (2008). Doktorluk, hemşirelik, ebelik, diş hekimliği, veterinerlik, eczacılık ve mimarlık eğitim programlarının asgari eğitim koşullarının belirlenmesine dair yönetmelik. Resmi Gazete, 02 Şubat 2008, Sayı: 26775. http:// www.mevzuat.adalet.gov.tr/html/27749.html

Yükseköğretim Kurulu Başkanlığı (2010). Yükseköğretimde yeniden yapılanma: 66 soruda Bologna Süreci uygulamaları. Erişim: https://bologna.yok.gov.tr/files/ aa47b53c5284 bbe5d597211c0b088d.pdf

Yükseköğretim Kurulu (2011). Türkiye Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (TYYÇ) Temel Alan Yeterlilikleri: Mimarlık ve yapı. Erişim: http://www.tyyc.yok.gov.tr/raporlar/58_MIMARLIK_ YAPI_13_01_2011.pdf

Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikler Kurulu (YYK) & Ok k, Ş. (2007). Yükseköğretim Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi. Erişim: http://bologna. yok.gov.tr

Yükseköğre mde Ulusal Yeterlilikler Komisyonu (YUYK) (2009). Rapor: Türkiye Yükseköğretim Ulusal Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi (TYUYÇ). Erişim: http://bologna.yok.gov.tr

Kaynak Göster