İşlem Maliyeti Yaklaşımı'nın Kültürel Temelleri

İşlem maliyeti yaklaşımının temel varsayımları olan fırsatçılık; ve sınırlı akılcılık kültürel değerlerden etkilenmektedir ve kültürlerarasında birbirinden farklılık göstermektedir. Özellikle işlem topolojilerine bakıldığında bu yaklaşımın kültürden etkilendiğine dair en somut örnek sosyal ilişkilere ve güvene dayalı klan sistemidir. Kültürel düzeyde, bireyci davranış gösterenlerin toplulukçu davranış gösterenlere göre daha fırsatçı olduğuna dair basit bir genelleme yapılmasına rağmen, bu çalışmanın teorik varsayımları hem bireyci hem de toplulukçu davranış gösterenlerin ilişkisel faktörlere bağlı olarak fırsatçı eğilim gösterdiklerini ileri sürmektedir. Dikey bireycilik ve toplulukçuluk, yatay bireycilik ve toplulukçuluğa göre fırsatçı eğilimi daha çok etkilemektedir. Ayrıca, toplulukçu davranış gösterenlerin sosyal kontrol eğilimleri, iç gruba dönüşme potansiyeli taşıyan ilgisiz alanlarda çeşitlenme stratejisi olarak hareketlerini yönlendirmektedir. Baskın form olarak tanımlanan Türkiye'deki şirket grupları ilgisiz alanlarda çeşitlenerek büyümüşlerdir. Dolayısıyla, bir toplumda iç grup dış grup arasındaki çıkar çatışması ne kadar büyürse, ekonomide iş gruplarının önemi o kadar çok artmaktadır. Sonuç olarak Türk toplumundaki dikey (hiyerarşik) ilişkiler fırsatçı eğilimi ve işlem maliyetlerini artırmaktadır.

Cultural Foundation of Transaction Cost Economics

Opportunism and bounded rationality, which are the basic assumptions of the Transaction Cost Economics, are affected by cultural values which differentiate among cross-cultural. The most concrete example, in terms of cultural affects on this approach, is clan system, based on social relationship and trust, according to transaction typology. Although a simplistic cultural generalization could be that individualists are more likely to be opportunistic than collectivism our theoretical propositions indicate that both collectivists and individualists can be opportunistic depending on relational factors. It is possible that vertical individualism and collectivism are likely to be more influencing on opportunistic propensity than horizontal versions of individualism and collectivism. Furthermore, social control tendencies of collectivists may direct their activities toward unrelated diversification, having the potential to turn into ingroups. Typically, Turkish business groups, as the dominant business groups in Turkey have grown through unrelated diversification. Consequently, the more interest conflicts between ingroup and outgroups in a society, the greater the importance of business groups is in the economy. As a result, vertical (hierarchy) relationship in Turkish society increases opportunistic propensity and transaction cost.

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Kaynak Göster