ORTAÖĞRETİM KADEMESİNDE GÖREVLİ OKUL YÖNETİCİLERİNİN REHBERLİK VE PSİKOLOJİK DANIŞMANLIK HİZMETLERİNE İLİŞKİN ALGI VE GÖRÜŞLERİ

Bu çalışmanın amacı ortaöğretim okul yöneticilerinin rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık hizmetlerine ilişkin görüşleri incelemektir. Bu nedenle ortaöğretim okul yöneticilerinin gerçekleştirilen okul rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık hizmetlerine ilişkin bakış açısı, rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık (RPD) hizmetlerinin okul yönetimine katkısı, okullarında uygulanan rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık hizmetleri ve bu hizmetlerin okul ve öğrenciler üzerine etkisine ilişkin değerlendirmeler ele alınmıştır. Araştırma evrenini 2016 - 2017 eğitim öğretim yılında Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Gazimağusa ilçe merkezindeki devlete bağlı iki meslek lisesi, bir normal lise, bir kolej ortaokulu, iki normal ortaokul olmak üzere altı okul oluşturmaktadır. Her okuldan okul müdür ve müdür yardımcılarına ulaşılarak toplam 20 okul yöneticisi ile görüşülmüştür. Veri toplama aracı yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formundan oluşmaktadır. Görüşmelerden elde edilen veriler içerik analizi ile çözümlenmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre ortaöğretim okul yöneticileri rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık biriminin öneminin farkında olup rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık hizmetlerinin bilincinde ve bu hizmetlerin okullarında daha etkin kullanılmasını beklemektedir. Bu sayede okul yönetiminin işlerinin hafifleyeceği ve okul imajının olumlu etkileneceği yönünde görüşlere ulaşılmıştır. Yapılan görüşme sonuçlarına göre RPD hizmetlerine ilişkin görüşleri ortaokullar ve liseler olmak üzere iki gruba ayrılıyor. Öğrencilerin gelişim dönemlerine göre okullar da rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık birimlerinin etkin ve pasif olduğu hizmetler değişiyor. Dolayısıyla okul yönetimi okullarında pasif hizmetleri daha çok talep ediyor. RPD hizmetlerinin daha etkin çalışarak bütün öğrencileri ve paydaşları kapsayacak şekilde etkili çalışması yönündeki beklentilere ulaşılan ortak sonuç diyebiliriz

PERCEPTIONS AND OPINIONS OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS WORKING IN SECONDARY EDUCATION ON PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELLING AND GUIDANCE SERVICES

The purpose of this study is to examine how secondary school administrators perceive guidance and psychological counseling services. For this reason, the way of thinking about school guidance and psychological counselinfg provided by secondary school administrators, the contribution of guidance and psyhological counseling (RPD) services to school management, the guidance and psychological counseling services applied in scholls and the evaluations of the effects of these services on school and students are discussed. In the 2016 - 2017 acaemic year, the research population is composed of six vocational high schools, a normal high school, a collage middle school and two normal secondary schools in the Gazimağusa district center of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, School principals and manager’s assistants were reached from each school and total of 20 school administrators were interviewed. The data collection tool consists of a semi-structured interview form. The data obtained from interviews were analyzed by content analysis. According to the result of the research, secondary school administrators are aware of the importance of guidance and psychological counseling services and expect to be aware of guidance and psychological counseling services and to use these services more effectively in their schools. In this respect, opinions were reached that the school administration affairs will be alleviated and the school image will be positively affected. According to the results of the interviews, the perspective and expectations of RPD services are divided into two groups as secondary schools and high schools. According to the development periods of the students, the services that the guidance and psychological counseling services are active and inactive vary in schools. School management therefore demands more passive services in schools. The common result is that RPD services are expected to work more effectively and to work effectively to include all student and stakeholders The secondary education period is known as the period when individuals pass from childhood to adolescence and when individuals have different characteristics from each other. It can be said that these differences may be due to physical, mental, social, developmental characteristics as well as interests and capabilities. In this context, there are students with many different characteristics at different levels of education. Yeşilyaprak (2002) pointed out that these differences include disadvantaged groups in terms of socio-economic level and students who need special education and it has been clearly stated that the psychological counselling and guidance services are necessary in order to provide development environments suitable for individual differences at the level of secondary education The psychological counselling and guidance services are intended to be carried out under the coordination of school psychological counsellors and guides in our schools. In case the number of psychological counsellors is insufficient, they are assigned to two different schools. As is understood from these situations, although the psychological counselling and guidance services are carried out at the general level of schools, the psychological counselling and guidance services at student level are carried out by branch teachers who are assigned as "class counsellors". Psychological counselling teachers may try to recognise their class by doing classroom and guided activities where they are responsible for guided hours, which can be set as an hour per week (Green, Alan & Keys, Susan, 2001). Counselling an aid to the expert so that individuals can use their hidden powers to understand themselves, to define the possibilities around them, to make appropriate choices and to make their own decisions. The purpose of counselling is to help individuals to become individuals who can know themselves and their surroundings, access the true knowledge and solve their problems. Due to this reason, counselling and guidance constitute an integral part of the education system (Türkoğlu, 1997). As the education and the personality development of the students are continuous, the psychological counselling and guidance services should be integrated with the education. The psychological counselling and guidance services should be implemented gradually in stages and services should continue without interruption. Parallel to the continuity of education and development, students at the same level or in the same class may be at different stages of development. In this sense, individuals may need lifelong psychological counselling and guidance services. Accordingly, having the developmental periods taken into consideration, they reveal the importance of the transition period in secondary schools. It is known that students need the psychological counselling and guidance services during these periods more than ever. Today's rapid change and development lead to a necessity to work together to help students in keeping pace. As is known, this necessity requires cooperation. At the same time, the expectations of the school administrators are well known within the framework of cooperation in developing a common and adequate understanding. In this context, school administrators' perspectives and expectations about psychological counselling and guidance services will also affect teachers and students. Feedbacks from school principals during the psychological counselling and guidance services can be provided to classroom teachers and students through school counsellors and psychological counsellors and deputy principals in order to facilitate flexible and moderate attitudes to classroom settings. This is because the psychological counselling and guidance services should be conducted in cooperation with the school staff. It can be said that the psychological counselling and guidance services should be carried out by an organized team in order to achieve success. In this sense, the psychological counselling and guidance services are a team effort, and it is hoped that the expectations of each student in the team will be determined and working in a conscious and organized manner, which will make the psychological counselling and guidance services more efficient. The study is also the first in the study universe because it carries out the evaluation of the psychological counselling and guidance activities in secondary schools from the perspective of school administrators. In this study, it has been intended to determine the presumptions of school administrators who are in education and teaching activities regarding the psychological counselling and guidance services of schools and the shortcomings in carrying out these services in view from the perspective of the administrative staff. Thus, it is aimed to the psychological counselling and guidance services more consciously. Method Research Pattern This research is a qualitative research. Semi-structured interview technique was used in the study as one of the qualitative research methods. Interview technique is one of the basic data collection tools used in qualitative research. At the same time, it is one of the most powerful methods used in order to understand others (Punch, 2005). Interviewing is one of the most commonly used research methods in social sciences and especially in sociology (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2008). The generalization of the findings obtained in qualitative research is difficult. It is significant to demonstrate the opinions of the people who share the research process, the meaning systems they reflect, and their perceptions of social life rather than making any generalization in the process of reporting the research. A holistic understanding effort should include clearly presenting the common lines, similarities, and differences seen in different quotations from each interview and understanding the reality of the information shared in the research process correctly (Kümbetoğlu, 2005). At this final stage, researcher has to make suggestions in order to derive certain theoretical and practical results from the obtained findings. In qualitative research, the practical results are not in the form of rules or principles as in quantitative research. The results constitute more experience and perspective for researchers (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2008). Universe and Sampling The study universe of this research consists of the school administrators who work in secondary schools in Famagusta district centre under the TRNC Ministry of National Education General Secondary Education Office. The participants of the study consisted of 20 school administrators working in secondary education including two vocational high schools, a state high school, a college and two state secondary schools in Famagusta district centre in the 2016-2017 academic year. In this context, the administrators of the secondary schools were selected by convenience sampling method. Data Collection Tool Data Collection A semi-structured interview form prepared by the researchers was used in order to collect the qualitative data. "School Administrators' Perception of Psychological Counselling and Guidance Services Interview Form" was developed by researchers in order to gather information about the views of the school administrators working in the secondary education in Famagusta in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on the psychological counselling and guidance services. In the process of developing the "School Administrators' Perception of Psychological Counselling and Guidance Services Interview Form", the literature was firstly reviewed and the implemented after finalising the form by receiving an expert opinion. The interviews were held for 25 and 45 minutes at the locations and times determined by the participants. The interviews were recorded by using the voice recorder during the interviews with the permission of the participants. Findings The findings related to the responses of school administrators working in secondary education are grouped under the following headings: 1. Findings related to the opinions of school administrators working in secondary education about psychological counselling and guidance services. 2. Findings related to the opinions of school administrators working in secondary education about the contribution of regular implementation of psychological counselling and guidance services to the school administration in their schools. 3. Findings related to the views and evaluations of school administrators working in secondary education about the psychological counselling and guidance activities carried out by the psychological counselling and guidance units in their schools. 4. Views of school administrators working in secondary education about the effect of the implemented psychological counselling and guidance services on students in their schools 1.Findings related to the opinions of school administrators working in secondary education about the psychological counselling and guidance services The answers given by the school managers to the question "what are your opinions of school administrators working in secondary education about the psychological counselling and guidance services?" Answers are as follows: 1- Inadequacy of PCG services to solve student problems 2- Inadequacy of the number of psychological counsellors and guides 3- Assistance of psychological counsellors to the school administration in identigying students 2.Findings related to the opinions of school administrators working in secondary education about the contribution of regular implementation of psychological counselling and guidance services to the school administration in their schools. The distribution of the answers given by the school managers to the question "what do you think about the contribution of regular implementation of psychological counselling and guidance services to the school administration in your school?" Answers are as follows: 1- Solving student problems without being complicated 2- Having the load off the school administration 3- Preventing the school administration from spending time of solving student problems 3.Findings related to the views and evaluations of school administrators working in secondary education about the psychological counselling and guidance activities carried out by the psychological counselling and guidance units in their schools. The distribution of the answers given by the school managers to the question "what are the psychological counselling and guidance activities carried out by the psychological counselling and guidance units in your school? Do you find these activities efficient?" Answers are as follows: 1- Ineffectiveness of meetings with students regarding their special problems 2- Effectiveness of providing seminars regarding student problems 3- Performing family-oriented counselling studies 4.Views of school administrators working in secondary education about the effect of the implemented psychological counselling and guidance services on students in their schools The distribution of the answers given by the school managers to the question "do you think the implemented psychological counselling and guidance services are effective on students in your school?" If yes, please explain." Answers are as follows: 1- Reduction in the number of problems of the problematic students 2- Inadequacy of the psychological counsellors in solving student problems in some cases 3- The need of some students for psychologists and psychiatric help 4- Inability of psychological counsellors to access all students Results and Discussion In terms of the findings related to the opinions of school administrators working in secondary education about psychological counselling and guidance services, school administrators stated that the PCG services and the number of psychological counsellors are insufficient in order to solve student problems but the PCG services help the school administration in recognising students. Having considered these explanations, although the opinions about the services implemented by the psychological counselling and guidance units were positive to a large extent and this unit was found to be successful mainly in terms of directing students, it has also been stated that the services provided in order to solve problems were sometimes inadequate and unsuccessful from time to time. It can be said that this finding is compatible with the results of similar research conducted by Akgün (2010) and Karaküçük (2010). Akgün (2010) and Karaküçük (2010) state that the psychological counselling and guidance services are expressed as a unit of services that solves the problems of students in school by school administrators and teachers. Bakioğlu & Gayık (2005) state in their study that the psychological counselling and guidance services do not function adequately as the number of psychological counsellors working in schools and the number of students do not increase in equal proportion. In addition, it has been observed that the findings of the school administrators' opinions about the psychological counselling and guidance services implemented in schools are similar with the research results of Kızıl (2007). Kızıl (2007) states that the psychological counselling and guidance services implemented in schools were not applied adequately and they were not beneficial for students. Yüksel & Şahin (2002) concluded in their study that the reason for not providing PCG services effectively is the insufficient number of psychological counsellors in schools. Similarly, Hatunoglu (2006) concluded that the insufficient number of psychological counsellors working in schools prevented providing effective psychological counselling and guidance services. The school administrators stated that the regular implementation of the PCG services in schools contributed to the school administration in terms of solving student problems without being complicated, having the load off the school administration and preventing the school administration from spending time of solving student problems. In this context, it can be said that this finding is similar to the results of Gündüz, İnandı & Tunç (2014). In a similar study conducted by Gündüz, İnandı & Tunç (2014), it has been concluded that the low number of students in the school has increased the efficiency of the psychological counselling and guidance services provided by psychological counsellors and it had the load off the school administration In addition, the school administrators stated that the regular implementation of the psychological counselling and guidance services in schools contributed to the improvement of course and school success and to supporting the status of the school administration, to making the workload lighter by rendering the communication between the school administration and parents fluent, to the creation of non-problematic environments in school and helping the school administration access the paternal information as well as the identification of students with special problems. In the light of these answers, highly positive opinions were stated about the contribution of the regular implementation of the psychological counselling and guidance services to the school administration. Similarly, Özabacı, Sakarya and Doğan (2008) found out in their work on "The opinions of school administrators about psychological counselling and guidance services in schools" that there are many differences between the views of the principals and deputy principals responsible for the school administration regarding the functioning of the psychological counselling and guidance services in schools. Within the scope of the research, some school principals stated that the availability of the psychological counselling and guidance services as a unit in schools would be beneficial for the student development while some principals stated that the psychological counselling and guidance services should be available in schools in order to assist the administrative part. In terms of the views of the school administrators on the psychological counselling and guidance services, school administrators gave opinions about the PCG services as ineffectiveness of meetings with students regarding their special problems, effectiveness of providing seminars regarding student problems and performing family-oriented counselling studies. This finding is consistent with the findings of Akbaba & Batikan (2016). Akbaba & Batikan (2016) state that school administrators and counsellors gave the opinions that they needed to perform some activities such as conferences, seminars and panels in order for the psychological counselling and guidance services in schools to work effectively and efficiently. Within this context, it has been stated that the psychological counselling and guidance services conducted by the Ministry of National Education (MEB) (2001) undertake the task of providing conferences, panels and consultancy services for students, families and staff working in schools. In terms of the effect of the implemented psychological counselling and guidance services on students in their schools in the secondary education, the school administrators gave their opinions as reduction in the number of problems of the problematic students, inadequacy of the psychological counsellors in solving student problems in some cases, the need of some students for psychologists and psychiatric help and the inability of psychological counsellors to access all students. This finding is parallel to the findings of Tuzgöl, Dost & Keklik (2012). Tuzgöl, Dost & Keklik (2012) found that psychological counsellors working in psychological counselling and guidance services in schools were inadequate in solving student problems. In a similar study, Koydemir (2007) stated that psychological counsellors working in the psychological counselling and guidance services in schools were inadequate in solving student problems. Doğan & Erkan (2001) concluded in their study that one of the reasons of the inadequacy of the psychological counselling and guidance services in schools is the inadequate degrees of psychological counsellors. Having all the research findings evaluated, in terms of the general opinions of the school administrators regarding the psychological counselling and guidance services, it has been stated that an opposing view was expressed in terms of the assistance in identifying students and inadequacy of the psychological counselling and guidance services against some situations while it was stated that the psychological counsellors may be insufficient in solving some student problems. Moreover, it has been seen that school administrators do not find psychological counselling and guidance services effective in solving student problems without getting complicated and they provide explanations to students regarding the necessity to give family-oriented seminars and to provide consultancy services to families. It has been observed that these findings are generally in compliance with the findings of other research (Camdan & Sezgin, 2012; Glossoff & Kprowicz 1990; Page, Pietrzak & Sutton, 2001; Paisley & McMahon, 2001; Berkant & Tuncay, 2012; ASCA, 2013; Karataş & Baltacı 2013; Memişoğlu, 2016; Yıldız, Akbaşlı & Üredi, 2016) bulgularıyla da genel olarak uyum içinde olduğu görünmektedir.

Kaynakça

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Yıldız, B., Akbaşlı, S. & Üredi, L. (2016). Maarif müfettişlerinin sınıflarda uyguladığı rehberlik ve denetim uygulamalarının kaldırılmasına ilişkin öğretmen görüşleri. Turkish Studies - International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 11(3), 2427-2446, ISSN:1308-2140, www.turkishstudies.net, DOI Number: http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.9251, Ankara-Turkey.

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Kaynak Göster