The Reversal of Courtly Love Tradition in Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur: The Case of Tristan and Isolde

Courtly love convention is a medieval European concept of ennobling love which helped the shaping of the society and in return which was shaped by the society during the Middle Ages. The concept has its roots in many traditions such as the literature of Ancient Rome period, Hispano-Arabic poetry and philosophy, Troubadour poetry, feudalism and Christianity. However, there are also writers who were critical and suspicious of courtly love convention. Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1410-1471) presents a subtle criticism of the concept in his Le Morte Darthur (1485), the first collection that brings together all the Arthurian stories in English. One-third of this work consists of a controversial love story, the case of Tristan and Isolde. Therefore, Malory’s different treatment of the courtly love tradition and the Tristan story will be illustrated with the critical information on the Celtic sources of the legend and a comparative method to other significant characters involved in the courtly love in this work.

THOMAS MALORY’NİN ARTHUR’UN ÖLÜMÜ ESERİNDE SARAYLI USULÜ AŞK GELENEĞİNİN TERS YÜZ EDİLMESİ: TRİSTAN VE İSOLDE MESELESİ

Saraylı usulü aşk, Orta Çağ döneminde toplumun şekillenmesine yardım etmiş ve karşılığında toplum tarafından şekillendirilmiş, Orta Çağ Avrupası’na ait, âşığı yüceltici bir aşk kavramıdır. Bu kavramın kökleri Antik Roma dönemi edebiyatı, İspanyol-Arap şiiri ve felsefesi, Trubadur aşk şiiri, feodalizm ve Hristiyanlık gibi pek çok geleneğe dayanır. Ancak aynı zamanda bu kavrama karşı eleştirel olan ve şüphe ile yaklaşan yazarlar da bulunmaktadır. Sör Thomas Malory (y. 1410-1471) de İngilizce yazılmış Kral Arthur hikâyelerinin ilk tam derlemesi olan Arthur’un Ölümü (1485) adlı eserinde bu kavramı ustalıkla hicvetmiştir. Bu eserin üçte biri asırlardır tartışmalara konu olan bir aşk hikâyesi içermektedir: Tristan ve İsolde’nin meselesini. Bu sebeple, Malory’nin saraylı usulü aşk geleneği ile Tristan hikâyesine olan farklı yaklaşımı, efsanenin Kelt kaynaklarıyla ilgili önemli veriler sunularak ve eserdeki saraylı aşk yaşayan diğer mühim karakterlere kıyaslama yapılarak verilecektir.

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