Hollanda Göçmen Entegrasyonu Politikaları: Liberalizmden Neoliberalizme

Bu makalenin amacı, sosyal politika konusu olan göçmen entegrasyonunu Hollanda üzerinden incelemek ve göçmen politikalarının zaman içindeki değişimini açıklamaktır. Hollanda entegrasyon politikaları hakkında, 1970’lerden bu yana yapısal ve sosyo-kültürel boyutlarda ikincil kaynaklar ve Hollanda entegrasyon raporları çerçevesinde değerlendirme yapılmaktadır. 1970’lerde göçmenlerin kalıcılığını fark etmeyen Hollanda devleti, anadillerini, dini ve kültürel aidiyetlerini muhafaza etmelerini sağlamaya dönük politika benimsemiştir. 1980’lerde izlenen ve “çokkültürcü” olarak tanımlanan Etnik Azınlık Politikası, göçmen entegrasyonuna grup odaklı yaklaşmış; konuyu sosyal politika altında değerlendirmiştir. 1990’larda bu yaklaşım, devlete getirdiği ekonomik yük gerekçesiyle terk edilmiştir. Göçmenden sosyo-ekonomik alanda toplumsal hayata ve kurumlara bireysel katılım beklenmiştir. Göçmen entegrasyonunda sosyal politikalardan istihdam politikalarına değişim başlamıştır. 2000’lerde göçmen politikalarında güvenlik eksenli bakış açısı benimsenmiştir. İslam ve Müslüman göçmenler, Hollanda toplumuna ve değerlerine tehdit olarak görülmüş, entegrasyonda kültürel asimilasyon beklentisi yansıtılmıştır. Makale, Hollanda göçmen entegrasyon politikalarında zaman içerisinde çok kültürcülükten asimilasyonist bakış açısına, gruptan birey odaklı yaklaşıma, hak ve fırsattan sorumluluk ve ödev temelli anlayışa, refah devleti politikalarından istihdam politikası perspektifine ve liberal politikalardan neoliberal paternalistik politikalara değişim yaşandığını savunmaktadır.

Dutch Immigrant Integration Policies: From Liberalism to Neoliberalism

This article aims to analyse the immigrant integration as a subject of social policy through the Dutch case and highlight the shift in immigrant policies in time. Dutch immigrant integration policies since 1970s have been assessed under the structural and socio-cultural dimensions with the employment of secondary sources and Dutch integration reports. The Netherlands embraced a policy for fostering the maintanence of their mother tongue, religious and cultural belongings during 1970s. The Ethnic Minorities Policy of 1980s, labeled as multiculturalist, reflected group focused approach to immigrant integration. This perspective was abandoned during 1990s due to its economic burden. Participation in the socio-economic sphere of life and to the Dutch institutions at the individual level was the main expectation in this period. Since 2000s immigrant integration policies embraced security focused perspective. Islam and Muslim immigrants were perceived as threat to Dutch society and values. The expectation of cultural assimilation in immigrant integration was reflected in policy. The article argues that Dutch immigrant integration policies have shifted from multiculturalist to assimilationist approach, from group to individual focus, from rights and opportunities to responsibilities and duties based understanding, from welfare state policy to workfare policy perspective and from liberal to neoliberal paternalistic policies.

Kaynakça

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