Kıta Avrupası (AB) Hukukunda Sözleşmenin İfa Yeri Mahkemesinin Milletlerarası Yetkisi: Common Law Bakış Açısı ile Kanunlar İhtilâfı Terminolojisi Arasında Sıkışmış Bir Yetki Kuralı

İfa yeri yetki kuralı özellikle Kıta Avrupası hukuk sistemine aidiyeti ile karakterize olan bir kuraldır. Kural, sözleşmeden doğan uyuşmazlıkların hangi yer mahkemelerince görüleceğine ilişkin olarak Roma hukukundan bugüne klasikleşmiş bir kural olarak varlığını korumuştur. Milletlerarası yetki tesisinde de esas alınan ifa yeri kuralının, özellikle Avrupa Birliği (AB) hukukuna ait uygulamada yorumlanması ile ilgili sorunlar 1970’li yıllardan beri baş göstermiş; AB Adalet Divanı tarafından common law etkisi ile kuralın en yakın ilişkili mahkemeye işaret etmesi gerektiği yönünde değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Sadece common law etkisi olarak görülemeyecek olan en yakın ilişki testi, aynı zamanda kanunlar ihtilâfı terminolojisinin izlerini taşımaktadır. Bu çalışmada ifa yeri yetki kuralının en yakın ilişkili mahkemeyi gösterme işlevinin en azından Kıta Avrupası sistemi dikkate alındığında bulunmadığı; aksine kuralın hukukî kesinlik ve öngörülebilirlik perspektifinden yorumlanması gerektiği ortaya konulmaktadır.

International Jurisdiction at the Place of Performance of a Contract in Civil (EU) Law: A Jurisdiction Rule Stuck Between the Common Law Perspective and Conflict of Laws Terminology

The place of performance rule is characterized by its belonging to the European (civil law) legal system. The rule has preserved its existence as a classic rule from Roman law to the present day regarding which local courts will hear the disputes arising from the contracts. Problems related to the interpretation of the place of performance rule, which is also taken as a basis of international jurisdiction, especially in the practice of European Union (EU) law, have emerged since the 1970s; the EU Court of Justice has held that the rule should point to the most closely connected court under the effect of a common law perspective. The closest connection test, which cannot only be seen as a common law effect, also bears traces of the conflict of laws terminology. In this article, it is found that the place of performance rule does not have the function of indicating the most closely connected court, at least in the context of civil law; on the contrary, the rule should be interpreted from the perspective of legal certainty and predictability.

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Public and Private International Law Bulletin-Cover
  • ISSN: 2651-5377
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 2 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 1981
  • Yayıncı: İstanbul Üniversitesi