Life Quality of 9-11 Year-old Children: Family Functionality and Demographic Variables

In this study, the relationship between the quality of life levels of children aged 9-11 and their perception of family functions and some demographic characteristics was investigated. The sample of the study included six primary schools and six secondary schools in the central districts of a metropolitan city located in the west of Turkey in the 2017-2018 academic year. Participants were 783 children, 396 girls and 387 boys. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data collected by using the General Quality of Life Scale for Children and Family Relationship Scale for Children. The results of the analysis showed that supportive and discouraging family relationships scores significantly predicted the quality of life of the children and explained 35.80% of change in their quality of life. In addition, the predictive power of supporting family relationships (28.70%) was significantly higher than that of the discouraging family relationships (-7.10%) in explaining children’s quality of life. Gender, age and number of siblings were not significantly correlated with life quality of children.

9-11 Yaş Arası Çocukların Yaşam Kalitesi: Aile İşlevselliği ve Demografik Değişkenler

Bu araştırmada Türkiye'de yaşayan 9-11 yaş arası çocukların yaşam kalitesinin, aile işlevleri algıları (destekleyici aile ilişkileri ve engelleyici aile ilişkileri) ve bazı demografik değişkenlerle (cinsiyet, yaş ve kardeş sayısı) ilişkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi, 2017-2018 eğitim-öğretim yılında Türkiye'nin batısında bulunan bir büyükşehirin merkez ilçelerindeki altı ilkokul ve altı ortaokulun 3. 4. ve 5. sınıf düzeylerinde eğitim gören, 396’sı kız, 387’i erkek olmak üzere toplam 783 çocuktan oluşmuştur. ‘Çocuklar İçin Genel Yaşam Kalitesi Ölçeği’ (Kid-KINDL) ve ‘Çocuklar İçin Aile İlişkileri Ölçeği’ (ÇAİÖ) kullanılarak toplanan verilerin analizinde aşamalı regresyon analizi kullanılmıştır. Yapılan analiz sonrasında, destekleyici ve engelleyici aile ilişkilerinin çocukların yaşam kalitesi düzeyini anlamlı olarak yordadığı ve birlikte çocukların yaşam kalitesindeki değişimin %35.80’ini açıkladığı bulunmuştur. Çocukların yaşam kalitesinin açıklanmasında destekleyici aile ilişkilerinin yordama gücünün (%28.70) engelleyici aile ilişkilerine göre (%-7.10) dikkate değer bir farkla yüksek olduğu görülmüştür. Cinsiyet, yaş ve kardeş sayısı değişkenlerinin ise, çocukların yaşam kalitesi düzeyi ile anlamlı bir ilişki göstermediği bulunmuştur.

Kaynakça

Baytekin, M. (2017). Quality of life in children diagnosed with cancer: child and parent reports. Unpublished master’s thesis, Trakya University, Edirne.

Ben-Arieh, A. (2008). The child indicators movement: past, present and future. Child Indicators Research, 1, 3–16.

Berman, A. H., Liu, B., Ullman, S., Jadback, I., & Engstrom, K. (2016). Children's quality of life based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child self-report, parent ratings and child-parent agreement in a Swedish random population sample. PLoS One, 11(3).

Bradshaw, J., Keung, A., Rees, G., & Goswami, H. (2011). Children's subjective well-being: International comparative perspectives. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(4), 548–556.

Brinkerhoff, M.B., Fredel, K.A., & Frideres, J.S. (1997). Basic minimum needs, quality of life and selected correlates: Explorations in villages in Northern India. Social Indicators Research, 42, 248- 281.

Casas, F. (2011). Subjective social indicators and child and adolescent well being. Child Indicators Research, 4(4), 555-575.

Casas, F., Bello, A.,Gonzalez, M., & Aligue, M. (2013). Children’s subjective well-being measured using a composite index: What impacts Spanish first-year secondary education students’ subjective wellbeing? Child Indicators Research, 6(3), 433-460.

Cavallo, F., Zambon, A., Borraccino, A., Sieberer, UR., Torsheim, T., & Lemma, P. (2006). Girls growing through adolescence have a higher risk of poor health. Quality Life Res., 15, 1577-1585.

Chappel, A.M., Suldo, S.M., & Ogg, J.A. (2014). Associations between adolescents’family stressors and life satisfaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 76-84.

Chen, J.L., & Kennedy, C. (2004). Family functioning, parenting style, and Chinese children’s weight status. Journal of Family Nursing, 10, 262- 279.

Cook, W.L. (2000). Understanding attachment security in family context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 285-294.

Cook, W.L. (2001). Interpersonal influence in family systems: A social relations analysis. Child Development, 72, 1179-1197.

Coyl-Shepherd, D., & Newland, L.A. (2013). Mother’s and father’s couple and family contextual influences, parent involvement, and school-age child attachment. Early Child Development and Care, 183, 553- 569.

Crawford, N. A., Schrock, M., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2011). Child internalizing symptoms: Contributions of child temperament, maternal negative affect, and family functioning. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42(1), 53–64.

Cummings, E.M., & Davies, P.T. (2002). Effects of marital conflict on children: Recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 31-63.

Çivitci, A. (2009). Life satisfaction in primary school students: The role of some personal and familial factors. Uludağ University Journal of Faculty of Education, 22 (1), 29-52.

Demiriz, S., & Ulutaş, İ. (2016). How Happy are Children? Determining Happiness according to Some Variables. Adnan Menderes University Journal of Faculty of Education, 7 (1), 16-24.

Demirtaş Zorbaz, S., & Korkut Owen, F., (2013). Developing Family Relationship Scale for Children. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(39), 58-67.

Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1997). Measuring quality of life: Economic, social, and subjective indicator. Social Indicators Research, 49, 189–216.

Diener, E., Eunkook, MS., Lucas, RE., & Smith, HL. (1999). Subjective well being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276-302.

Dinisman, T., Montserrat, C., & Casas, F. (2012). The subjective well-being of Spanish adolescents according to different living arrangements. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(12), 2374-2380.

Dinisman, T., Zeira, Z., Sulimani-Aidan, Y., & Benbenishyt, R. (2013). The subjective well-being of young people aging out of care. Children and Youth Services Review, 35, 1705- 1711.

Dinisman, T., & Ben-Arieh, A. (2016). The characteristics of children's subjective wellbeing. Social Indicators Research, 126, 555–569.

Dinisman, T., Andresen, S., Montserrat, C., Strózik, D., & Strózik, T. (2017). Family structure and family relationship from the child well-being perspective: Findings from comparative analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 80, 105–115.

Drotar, D., & Bonner, M. S. (2009). Influences on adherence to pediatric asthma treatment: A review of correlates and predictors. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 30, 574–582.

Düken, M.E. (2018). The effect on the quality of life the child and the parent of family function of children with organ transplantation. Unpublished master’s thesis, İnönü University, Malatya.

Eser, E., Yüksel, H., Baydur, H., Erhart, M., Saatli, G., Cengiz Özyurt, B., Özcan, C., & Sieberer, U. R. (2008). The Psychometric Properties of the New Turkish Generic Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children (Kid-KINDL). Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 19 (4), 409-417.

Evci Kiraz, E.D., Akar Vural, R., Yılmaz Özelçi, S., Vural, T., & Ergin, F. (2013). Assessment of the quality of life for school children in context of social class reality: descriptive study in Aydın. International Journal of Human Sciences, 1(10), 1379-1400.

Gilman, R., & Huebner, E. (2006). Characteristics of adolescents who report very high life satisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 311-319.

Goswami, H. (2012). Social relationships and children’s subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 107, 575-588.

Halle, T., Forry, N., Hair, E., Perper, K., Wandner, L., Wessel, J., & Vick, J (2009). Disparities in Early Learning and Development: Lessons from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Washington, DC: Child Trends.

Haskett, M.E., & Willoughby, M. (2007). Paths to child social adjusment: parenting quality and children’s processing of social information. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(1), 67-77.

Hefferon, K., & Boniwell, I. (2014). Positive psychology: theory, research and applications. (Çev. Doğan, T.). Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.

Higginson, I.J., Carr, A.J. & Robinson, P.G. (2003). Quality of life. London: GBR:BMJ Publishing Group.

Hoşcan, S. (2010). Investigation of the mediating effect of parental attitude in the relationship between the perception of marital conflict and quality of life of 9 12 year old children. Unpublished master’s thesis. İstanbul University, İstanbul.

Hubner, E. S. (2004). Research on assessment of life satisfaction of children and adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 66, 3–33.

Huebner, E.S., Seligson, J.L., Valois, R.F., & Suldo, S.M. (2006). A review of the brief multidimensional student’s life satisfaction scale. Social Indicators Research, 79(3), 477-484.

Joronen, K., & Kurki, A. (2005). Familial contribution to adolescent subjective well-being. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 11(3), 125-133.

Kağıtçıbaşı, C. (2005). Autonomy and relatedness in cultual context: Implications for self and family. Journal of Cross- Cultual Psychology, 36(4), 403-422.

Kağıtçıbaşı, C. (2007). Family, self and human development across cultures: Theory and Application. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kandemirci, D. (2018). Examining the effectiveness of a teacher training program on autonomy support. Doctoral thesis, Ege University, İzmir.

Karatzias, A., Chouliara, Z. Power, K., & Vivien, S. (2006). Predicting general well-being from self-esteem and affectivity: An exploratory study with Scottish adolescents. Quality of Life Research, 15, 1143-1151.

King, M. F., Renó, V. F., & Novo, E. M. (2014). The concept, dimensions and methods of assessment of human well-being within a socioecological context: A literature review. Social Indicators Research, 116, 681–698.

Klocke, A., Clair, A., & Bradshaw, J. (2014). International variation in child subjective well-being. Child Indicators Research, 7, 1-20.

Knopp, K., Rhoades, G. K., Allen, E. S., Parsons, A., Ritchie, L. L., Markman, H. J., & Stanley, S. M. (2017). Within- and between-family associations of marital functioning and child well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79(2), 451–461.

Kochanska, G., Clark, L., & Goldman, M. (1997). Implications of mothers’ personality for parenting and their young children’s developmental outcomes. Journal of Personality, 65, 389–420.

Kosher, H., & Ben-Arieh, A. (2017). What children think about their rights and their well-being: A crossnational comparison. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 87(3), 256-273.

Kutsar, D., Soo, K., Strozik, T., Strozik, D., Grigoraş, B., & Baltatescu, S. (2019). Does the realisation of children’s rights determine good life in 8-year-olds’ perspective? A Comparison of Eight European Countries. Child Indicators Research, 12, 161-183.

Laursen, B., Wilder, D., Noack, P., & Williams, V. (2002). Adolescent perceptions of reciprocity, authority, and closeness in relationship with mothers, fathers, and friends. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 461-471.

Lawler, M.J., Newland, L.A., Giger, J.T., Roh, S., & Brockevelt, B.L. (2017). Ecological, relationship-based model of children’s subjective well-being: Perspectives of 10-year-old children in the United States and 10 other countries. Child Ind Res., 10, 1-18.

Lee, N. (2005). Childhood and society growing up in an age of uncertainty. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Lee, P.H., Chang, L.I., & Sieberer, U. (2008). Psychometric evaluation of the Taiwanese version of the Kiddo-KINDL generic children’s health-related quality of life instrument. Qua Life Res., 17(4), 603-611.

Leeman, J., Crandell, J.L., Lee, A., Bai, J., Sandelowski, M., & Knafl, K. (2016). Family functioning and the well-being of children with chronic conditions: a meta-analysis. Research in Nursing and Health, 39, 229-243.

Leve, L. D., Kim, H. K., & Pears, K.C. (2005). Childhood temperament and family environment as predictors of internalizing and externalizing trajectories from ages 5 to 17. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 505- 520.

Lewandowski, A. S., Palermo, T. M., Stinson, J., Handley, S., & Chambers, C. T. (2010). Systematic review of family functioning in families of children and adolescents with chronic pain. Journal of Pain, 11, 1027–1038.

Lyubomirsky, S., King, L. & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, , 6, 803– 855

Matza, L. S., Swensed, A. R., Flood, E. M., Secnik, K., & Leidy, N. K. (2004). Assessment of health-related quality of life in children: Review of conceptual, methodological, and regulatory issues. Value in Health, 7, 79–92.

McCall, S. (1975). Quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 2(2), 229-248.

McHale, S. M., Updegraff, K. A., & Whiteman, S. K. (2012). Sibling relationships and influences in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 913–930.

Migliorini, L., Rania, N., & Cardinali, P. (2015). The scaffolding function of family routines and rituals during the preschool age of children [in Italian]. Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, 1, 155–164.

Migliorini, L., Rania, N., & Tassara, T. (2016). An ecological perspective on early years workforce competences in Italian ECEC settings. Early Years, 36(2), 165–178.

Migliorini, L., Tassara, T., & Rania, N. (2018). A study of subjective well-being and life satisfaction in Italy: How are children doing at 8 years of age? Child Indicators Research,1-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-017-9514-3.

Miller, I.W., Ryan, C.E., Keitner, G.I., Bishop, D.S. ve Epstein, N.B. (2000). The Mcmaster approach to families: Theory, assesment, treatment and research. Journal of Family Therapy, 22 (2), 168 – 189.

Miray Topçu, E. (2017). The relatiȯ nshiṗ between chi̇ ldren's qualiṫy of liḟe and parents' communiċatiȯn skills who have attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Unpublished master’s thesis, Ege University, İzmir.

Moore, K. A., Lippman, L., & Brown, B. (2004). Indicators of child well-being: The promise for positive youth development. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591 (1), 125–145.

Moustafa, Z. (2012). Children with asthma attack and general remission quality of life scales comparison and life variables affecting the quality of investigation. Doctoral thesis, Ege University, İzmir.

Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy? Psychological Science, 6, 10-19.

Navarro, D., Montserrat, C., Malo, S., González, M., Casas, F., & Crous, G. (2017). Subjective well-being: what do adolescents say? Child & Family Social Work, 22(1), 175–184.

Nemli, N. (2015). Turkish adaptation of quality of life questionnaire (HEAR-QL) for children with hearing loss and the assesment of the effects of hearing loss on quality of life among children aged 7-12. Unpublished master’s thesis, Gazi University, Ankara.

Newland, L. A., Giger, J. T., Lawler, M. J., Carr, E. R., Dykstra, E. A., & Roh, S. (2014). Subjective well-being for children in a rural community. Journal of Social Service Research, 40(5), 642–661.

Oriol, X., Torres, J., Miranda, R., Bilbao, M., & Ortúzar, H. (2017). Comparing family, friends and satisfaction with school experience as predictors of SWB in children who have and have not made the transition to middle school in different countries. Child. Youth Serv. Rev., 80, 149–156.

Özyurt, Dinsever, Akpınar, Özcan, Şal ve Öztürk (2017). The effect of therapeutic horseback riding for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder on autistic symptoms and the quality of life. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry,18(6):630-636.

Öztürk, Ö. (2010). Assessment of life quality in the children with pervasive developmental disorders, investigation of the factors affecting life quality by comparison with control group. Doctoral thesis, Ege University, İzmir.

Peleg-Popko, O., & Dar, R. (2001). Marital quality, family patterns, and children’s fears and social anxiety. Contemporary Family Therapy, 23(4), 465-487.

Postman, N. (1995). The Disappearance of Childhood. (Trans. K. İnal. ). Ankara: İmge Kitabevi, Turkey.

Prinzie, P., Onghena, P., Hellinckx, W., Grietens, H., Ghesquiere, P., & Colpin, H. (2004). Parent and child personality characteristics as predictors of negative discipiline and externalizing problem behaviour in children. European Journal of Personality, 18 (2), 73-102.

Prinzie, P., Onghena, P., Hellinckx, W., Grietens, H., Ghesquiere, P., & Colpin, H. (2005). Direct and indirect relationships between parental personality and externalising behaviour: The role of negative parenting. Psychologica Belgica, 45 (2), 126- 145.

Prinzie, P., Stams, G.J.J.M., Dekovic, M., Reijintes, A.H.A., & Belsky, J. (2009). The relations between parent’s big-five personality factors and parenting: a meta-analytic review, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(2), 351-362.

Qvortrup, J. (2004). Editorial: The Waiting Child. Childhood, 11(3), 267–273.

Rask, K., Astedt-Kurk, P., Paavilainen, E., & Laippala, P. (2003). Adolescent subjective well-being and family dynamics. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 17, 129-138.

Ratcliffe, C., & McKernan, S.M. (2010). Childhood poverty persistence: Facts and consequences. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Rees, G., Bradshaw, J., Goswami, H., & Keung, A. (2009). Understanding children’s wellbeing: A national survey of young people’s wellbeing. London: The Children’s Society.

Rees, G., Goswami, H., & Bradshaw, J. (2010) Developing an index of children’s subjective well-being in England. London: The Children’s Society.

Rigg, A., & Pryor, J. (2007). Children’s perceptions of families: What do they really think? Children and Society, 21, 17-30.

Ross, H., Stein, N., Trabasso, T., Woody, E., & Ross, M. (2005). The quality of family relationships within and across generations. A social relations analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29 (2), 110–119.

Salman-Engin, S., Sümer, N., Sağel, E. and McHale, J. (2018) Coparenting in the context of “motherfather-infant” and “mother-grandmother-infant” triangular interactions in Turkey. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27 (4), 3085–3095.

Sieberer, U., & Bullinger, M. (1998). Questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in children and adolescents, www.kindl.org.

Sieberer, U., Devine, J., Bevans, K., Riley, A. W., Moon, J., Salsman, J. M., & Forrest, C. B. (2014). Subjective well-being measures for children were developed within the PROMIS project: Presentation of first results. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67 (2), 207–218.

Stemmler, M., & Petersen, A.C. (2000). Reciprocity and change within the affective environment in early adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23 (1), 185-198.

Sümer, N., Sayıl, M., Kazak-Berument, S., Doğruyol, B., Günaydın, G., Harma, M., Öztürk, A., Salman, S., & Selçuk, E. (2009). The Impact of Attachment, Caregiving, and Family Dynamics on Child's Development in Infancy and Middle Childhood. TÜBİTAK-SOBAG (Project No: 105K102), October 2005- January 2009.

Sümer, N., Gündoğdu Aktürk, E. ve Helvacı, E. (2010). Psychological Effects of Parenting Styles and Behaviors: A Review of Studies in Turkey. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 13 (25), 42-59.

Testa, M.A., & Simonson, D.C. (1996). Assessment of quality of life outcomes. The New England Journal of Medicine, (334), 835-840.

The Children’s Society. (2012). Promoting positive well-being for children. A report for decision-makers in parliament, central government and local areas. London: The Children’s Society.

The Children’s Society. (2014). The good childhood report. London: The Children’s Society.

Türk, A. (2002). The quality of life in patients with pediatric epilepsy, investigation of the correlation between quality of life and the cognitive depression scores, epileptic data. Doctoral thesis, Gazi University, Ankara.

Twenge, J.M., Campbell, W.K., & Foster, C.A. (2003). Parentalhood and marital satisfaction: Ametaanalytic review. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(3), 574 583. UNICEF,(2005). Dünya çocuklarının durumu raporu. https://www.unicef.org/turkey/pdf/_dcd05.pdf.

Uprichard, E (2008). Children as ‘being and becomings’: children, childhood and temporality. Children and Society, 22 (4), 303–313.

Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L. (2012). Global and school-related happiness in finnish school children. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 601-619.

Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L., & Lehto, E. (2013). Social factors explaining children’s subjective happiness and depressive symptoms. Social Indicators Research, 111, 603-615.

Üneri, Ö., & Çakın-Memik, N. (2007). Concept of quality of life in children and review inventories about quality of life. Çocuk ve Gençlik Ruh Sağlığı Dergisi, 14 (1), 48-56

Wallander, J. L., & Koot, H. M. (2016). Quality of life in children: A critical examination of concepts, approaches, issues, and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 45, 131–143.

Kaynak Göster