Sosyal Demokrasinin Yükselişi ve Düşüşü: Neoliberal Dönemde Sosyal Demokrasi Mümkün Mü?

Fransız Devrimi’nden bu yana güçlenen halk egemenliği ve cumhuriyet kavramlarının demokrasiyle birleşmesi, modern siyasal düşüncenin genel hattı olmuştur. Monarşilerden parlamenter demokrasiye geçişte sosyal demokrasi belirleyici rol üstlenmiştir. 20. yüzyıl başında Marksizm ile yolları ayrılan ve 1945 sonrası dönemde refah devleti kavramıyla güçlenen bu düşünce, değişen kapitalizme uyum sağlama adına yeni sosyal demokrasi ve Üçüncü Yol kavramları ile güç kaybetmiştir. Çalışmada refah devleti kavramı iktisadi analizlerle değil, çalışmanın bağlamı olan sosyal demokrasinin sosyal haklar bağlamında öne çıkardığı siyasal hat olarak ele alınmıştır. Çalışmanın hedefi, Avrupa siyasetinde yeni dönemde sosyal demokrasinin alabileceği rolü analiz etmektir. Bu doğrultuda düşüncenin tarihsel süreçte geçirdiği kritik dönemler ve ülke örnekleri üzerinden gelişimi incelenecektir. Bu açıdan çalışmanın argümanı, sosyal demokrasinin yeniden yükselişe geçmesi için tarihsel köklerindeki gibi temsil edilmeyen geniş halk kitleleriyle temas kurması gerekliliğidir. Gücünü kaybeden sosyal demokrasi, parlamenter demokrasinin yaşadığı temsil krizinden fazlasıyla etkilenmiştir. Sosyal demokrat partiler, sosyal talepleri temsil eden ya da bu taleplerin yöneldiği hat olmaktan 1980’ler sonu ve 1990’larla beraber büyük oranda çıkmıştır. 2000’lere bakıldığında, Avrupa’da sosyal demokrasinin hem kavram olarak etkisini yitirdiği hem de parti gücü olarak gerilediği açıkça görülebilir. Bu gerileme, ABD tarzı siyasetin yükselmesiyle siyasal gücü elinde bulunduramama, tartışmaları yönlendirme kapasitesini yitirme yönünde kendini göstermektedir. Sosyal demokrasinin hataları, tek neden olmasa da, Avrupa’nın siyasal krizine ve devamında hızla yükselen aşırı sağa zemin hazırlamıştır. Bu süreç aynı zamanda demokratik siyasetin neoliberal doğrular bağlamında şekillendiği bir tarihsel seyre tanıklık etmiştir. Bu çerçevede Almanya, Fransa, İngiltere ve İsveç örnekleri üzerinden kavramın tarihsel gelişimini anlattıktan sonra, günümüzde yine Avrupa sathında yaşadığı düşüşe çeşitli ülke örnekleri üzerinden değinilecektir.

The Rise and Fall of Social Democracy: Is Social Democracy Possible in the Neoliberal Age?

The aim of the study is to analyze the role that social democracy can take in European politics today. To do so, the development process of the thought will be examined through a historical perspective in terms of the critical periods and country examples. Social democracy had a determining role in the transition from monarchies to parliamentary democracy. At the beginning of the 20th century, social democracy separated ways with socialism and was strengthened by the concept of welfare state in the post-1945 period. However, with the adaptation to capitalism and changing economic order, it lost its impacts with the new social democracy and the Third Way concepts. In this framework, the argument of the study is that for the social democracy to become effective again, it should reconnect to social movements as the voice of the large masses which are not represented. Actually, social democracy is heavily influenced by the representation crisis of parliamentary democracy. Social democratic parties have largely ceased to represent social demands or is not in the line how to these demands are directed after the 1990s. As for the 2000s, it can be clearly seen that social democracy in Europe has regressed both in terms of concept and party power. This decline shows itself in the inability to hold political power and the capacity to direct debates with the rise of US-style politics. The failure of social democracy established a ground for the political crisis of Europe and especially rising extreme right. This process also witnessed a historical course in which democratic politics was shaped in the context of neoliberal truth. In this context, after explaining the historical development of the concept through the cases of Germany, France, England and Sweden, the social democratic decline in Europe will be discussed through examples of various countries.

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Kaynak Göster

APA Yıldırım, Y . (2021). Sosyal Demokrasinin Yükselişi ve Düşüşü: Neoliberal Dönemde Sosyal Demokrasi Mümkün Mü? . Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi , 9 (1) , 175-198 . DOI: 10.14782/marmarasbd.802887