Daha yakın zamana kadar büyük ölçüde bilgisayar sistemlerinin teknik korumasıyla ilişkilendirilen siber güvenlik, son beş yılda önemli ekonomik, insani ve ulusal güvenlik riskleri doğuran geleneksel olmayan bir güvenlik sorun olarak küresel toplumun gündemini sıklıkla meşgul etmektedir. Evrensel üyeliğe sahip ve egemen eşitlik ilkesi tarafından yönlendirilen Birleşmiş Milletler (BM), ulusal ve uluslararası siberalan güvenliği tartışmalarının yapıldığı önemli küresel hükümetlerarası örgütlerden biridir. Siber güçlerin siber normları kendi gündemleri çerçevesinde şekillendirmede etkin bir örgütsel platform ve araç olarak kullandıkları BM Genel Kurulu’nda siber güvenliğin siyasi, askeri, mali ve insani boyutlarıyla ilgili yürütülen müzakereleri ve kararları inceleyen bu makale, bir yandan siber güvenlik konusunda uluslararası toplumda oluşan fay hatlarını ortaya koymakta, diğer yandan birçok farklı hükümetlerarası organ ve örgütsel platformda ele alındığı için oldukça parçalanmış nitelikte olan BM’nin siberalan güvenliği regülasyonu hakkında tematik ve bütüncül bir analiz sunmaktadır. Makale, siber güçler arasında uluslararası siber güvenlik rejiminin niteliğine yönelik normatif çatışmayı, devletlerin siberalanda artan gücünü ve etkisini ve küresel yönetişimde Batı’dan Doğu’ya doğru bir kaymayı içeren üç ana eğilimin siberalanı şekillendirdiğini ortaya koymaktadır. Ayrıca çalışma kapsamında, devletler arasında siberalandaki faaliyetleri düzenlemek için harekete geçme iradesinde fark edilebilir bir ivme göze çarpsa da ortaya çıkan düzenleyici çerçevenin odağı ve siberalanı yönetmeye yönelik temel yaklaşımla ilgili olarak uluslararası toplumda net bir ayrımın devam ettiği ve siberalanın 21. yüzyılın merkezi bir jeopolitik rekabet alanı olarak ortaya çıktığı sonucuna varılmaktadır.
Cybersecurity, which was until recently largely associated with the technical protection of computer systems, has in the last five years risen on the global community’s agenda as an important non- traditional security issue posing significant economic, humanitarian, and national security risks. The United Nations (UN), with its universal membership and guided by the sovereign equality principle, has emerged as one of the first important global intergovernmental organizations for international cybersecurity debates. However, its regulation of cybersecurity, covering all aspects of protection from risks arising from the use of cyberspace by citizens, businesses, and governments, is highly fragmented as it is implemented by many different intergovernmental bodies and organizational platforms. In this article, I examine UN resolutions on the political, military, economic, and humanitarian aspects of cybersecurity to provide a thematic and holistic analysis of UN’s activities regarding cybersecurity. I also reveal the fault lines in the international community on cybersecurity by examining debates in the UN General Assembly and other organizational platforms, which cyber powers use both as a forum and resource to shape the global cyber norms agenda. My analysis shows that three main trends shape cyberspace regulation at the UN: a normative conflict between cyber powers over the nature of the international cybersecurity regime; the increasing power and influence of states in cyberspace; and a shift from West to East in global cyberspace governance. While states are clearly willing to regulate activities in cyberspace, the article also reveals a clear divide within the international community regarding the focus of the emerging regulatory framework and the basic approach to managing cyberspace. I conclude that cyberspace is likely to remain a central area of geopolitical competition in the 21st century.
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