Synthesis and Chemical Characterization of Alkyd Resins Using Maleic and Phthalic Anhydrides and Seed oil of Luffa aegyptiaca

Synthesis and Chemical Characterization of Alkyd Resins Using Maleic and Phthalic Anhydrides and Seed oil of Luffa aegyptiaca

The study aimed to provide sustainable alternatives to reduce industries’ over-reliance on edible vegetable oil for alkyd resin preparation as applicable in paint production. Alkyd resins were synthesized and characterized from sponge (Luffa aegyptiaca) seed oil. Condensation polymerization of monoglyceride with phthalic and maleic anhydride was carried out, and physico-chemical parameters such as drying time, total solids, viscosity, and chemical resistance were investigated following standard procedures. UV–visible, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopies were used to characterize the prepared alkyd resins. Sponge seed oil alkyd resins prepared with maleic anhydride (SPOMA) had a higher percentage yield (77.56%) than sponge seed oil prepared using phthalic anhydride (SPOPA) with 64.44%. The two alkyd resins showed a better drying time of 40 – 50 min than their commercial counterparts (70 min). This was attributed to the high degree of unsaturation of the seed oil due to the considerable proportion of linoleic acid in the seed oil. The alkyd resins were largely stable in 0.1 M HCl, 5% NaCl, and 0.1 M KOH, which caused the alkyd resins to whiten and shrink. The resins were generally soluble in xylene, kerosene, and petroleum ether. The nature of the alkyd resin can be described as nonpolar. This observation was consistent with the literature report. This study concluded that quality or industrial-grade alkyd resins could be prepared from sponge seed oil and thereby serve as a cheap and viable replacement for edible oils used in industries.


  • 1. Akintayo E. Characteristics and composition of Parkia biglobbossa and Jatropha curcas oils and cakes. Biores technol. 2004;92(3):307-10.
  • 2. Stephens J. Gourd Luffa-Luffa cylindrical, Luffaaegyptica and Luffaacutangula. J Hortic Sci Univ Florida. 2003;3:19-21.
  • 3. Udo GJ, Etesin UM, Awaka-Ama JJ, Nyong AE, Uwanta EJ. GCMS and FTIR Spectroscopy Characterization of Luffa Cylindrica Seed Oil and Biodiesel Produced from the oil. Commun Phys Sci. 2010;5(1,2,3): 378-90.
  • 4. Elemo GN, Elemo BO, Erukainure OL. Characterization of sponge gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.) seed oil. J Trop Agric. 2011;49:128-30.
  • 5. Oli C, Onuegbu T, Ezeudu E. Proximate composition, characterization and spectroscopic analysis of Luffa aegyptiaca Seed. Int J Life Sci Biotechnol Pharma Res. 2014;3(4):194.
  • 6. Khot SN, Lascala JJ, Can E, Morye SS, Williams GI, Palmese GR, et al. Development and application of triglyceride‐based polymers and composites. J Appl Polym Sci. 2001;82(3):703-23.
  • 7. Harry-O'Kuru R, Holser R, Abbott T, Weisleder D. Synthesis and characteristics of polyhydroxy triglycerides from milkweed oil. Ind Crop Prod. 2002;15(1):51-8.
  • 8. Atolani O, Olabiyi ET, Issa AA, Azeez HT, Onoja EG, Ibrahim SO, et al. Green synthesis and characterisation of natural antiseptic soaps from the oils of underutilised tropical seed. Sust Chem Pharm. 2016;4:32-9.
  • 9. Zubair MF, Atolani O, Ibrahim SO, Oguntoye OS, Abdulrahim HA, Oyegoke RA, et al. Chemical and biological evaluations of potent antiseptic cosmetic products obtained from Momordica charantia seed oil. Sust Chem Pharm. 2018;9:35-41.
  • 10. Otabor G, Ifijen I, Mohammed F, Aigbodion A, Ikhuoria E. Alkyd resin from rubber seed oil/linseed oil blend: a comparative study of the physiochemical properties. Heliyon. 2019;5(5):e01621.
  • 11. Kyenge B, Anhwange B, Ageh J, Igbum G. Comparative analysis of soybean seed oil modified alkyd resin and epoxidized soybean seed oil modified alkyd resin. Int J Modern Org Chem. 2012;1(2):66-71.
  • 12. Bora MM, Gogoi P, Deka DC, Kakati DK. Synthesis and characterization of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seed oil-based alkyd resin. Ind Crop Prod. 2014;52:721-8.
  • 13. Nway N, Mya M. Manufacture of alkyd resin from castor oil. Proc Word Acad Sci Eng Technol. 2008;36:928-34.
  • 14. Dhole G, Gunasekaran G, Singh S, Vinjamur M. Smart corrosion sensing phenanthroline modified alkyd coatings. Prof Org Coat. 2015;89:8-16.
  • 15. Jain RM, Mody K, Mishra A, Jha B. Physicochemical characterization of biosurfactant and its potential to remove oil from soil and cotton cloth. Carbohyd polym. 2012;89(4):1110-6.
  • 16. Hlaing NN, Oo MM. Manufacture of alkyd resin from castor oil. World Acad Sci Eng Technol. 2008;48:155-61.
  • 17. Patil DM, Phalak GA, Mhaske ST. Design and synthesis of bio-based epoxidized alkyd resin for anti-corrosive coating application. Iran Polym J. 2018;27(10):709-19.
  • 18. Ikhuoria EU, Aigbodion AI, Okieimen FE. Enhancing the quality of alkyd resins using methyl esters of rubber seed oil. Trop J Pharm Res. 2004;3(1):311-7.
  • 19. Spasojević P, Panić V, Džunuzović J, Marinković AD, Woortman A, Loos K, et al. High performance alkyd resins synthesized from postconsumer PET bottles. RSC Adv. 2015;5(76):62273-83.
  • 20. Ramli MF, Gan SN, Lim WH, Phang SW. Application of a palm oil-based alkyd for the improvement of polyaniline properties. Polym Polym Compos. 2017;25(7):537-44.
  • 21. Mahdavi R, Ashraf Talesh S. Experimental Investigation of Enhanced Self cleaning Properties of Alkyd Resin by Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles. Nanoscale. 2018;5(1):73-81.
  • 22. Issam A, Cheun C. A study of the effect of palm oil on the properties of a new alkyd resin. Malay Polym J. 2009;4(1):42-9.
  • 23. Islam MR, Beg MDH, Jamari SS. Alkyd based resin from non-drying oil. Procedia Eng. 2014;90:78-88.
  • 24. Kanai T, Mahato T, Kumar D. Synthesis and characterization of novel silicone acrylate–soya alkyd resin as binder for long life exterior coatings. Prog Org Coat. 2007;58(4):259-64.
  • 25. Chiplunkar PP, Pratap AP. Utilization of sunflower acid oil for synthesis of alkyd resin. Prog Org Coat. 2016;93:61-7.
  • 26. Uschanov P, Heiskanen N, Mononen P, Maunu SL, Koskimies S. Synthesis and characterization of tall oil fatty acids-based alkyd resins and alkyd–acrylate copolymers. Prog Org Coat. 2008;63(1):92-9.


Vancouver Zubair M. F. , Ibrahim S. O. , Stephen K. , Hamid A. A. , Ibukun O. , Atolani O. Synthesis and Chemical Characterization of Alkyd Resins Using Maleic and Phthalic Anhydrides and Seed oil of Luffa aegyptiaca. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry. 2023; 10(3): 689-702.
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda Yılda 4 Sayı
  • Yayıncı: Türkiye Kimya Derneği


Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Design, Synthesis and Anti-Bacterial Activity Evaluation of Indole-Based Benzophenone and Their Derivatives

Fekadu Tumoro ERABE, Dagne Adisu KURE, Salah SHERİF

Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications of Graphene Composites: A Survey

Biswajit DALAİ, Biswajit PATRA, Niharika DAS, Ruturaj SAHOO, Dipak Kumar SAHOO, Chhatrapati PARİDA, Sarat Kumar DASH

Eco-friendly dyeing of fabric and wool yarn samples with Morus nigra leaf extracts


Synthesis of New Azo Compounds and Their Application for a Simple Spectrophotometric Determination of Methyldopa Drug Using Anthranilic Acid and 2-Aminopyrimidine as Reagents


Synthesis, Antiproliferative Activity and In Silico Studies of Chalcones Derived From 4-(Imidazole-1-yl)Acetophenone

Bedriye Seda KURŞUN AKTAR, Abdulraheem Mustafa ALKARABASH, Ayşe ŞAHİN YAĞLIOĞLU, Emine Elçin ORUÇ-EMRE

Differences in Heavy Metals Adsorption on Natural, Modified, and Synthetic Zeolites-A Review

Sebghatullah MUDABER, Jenaidullah BATUR

Electrochemical Study of 17β-Estradiol and its Determination in Pharmaceutical Preparations using Square Wave Voltammetry


Novel Perylene-Based Antimicrobial PDI Chromophores

Cansu YILMAZ, Pınar GÜNER, Tülin AŞKUN, Funda YÜKRÜK

Removal Of Sumifix Yellow EXF Reactive Azo Dye By Electro-Fenton Method


Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Few Species of Genus Atalantia (Rutaceae): A Review

Pournima SHELAR, Santosh Kumar SINGH