Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications of Graphene Composites: A Survey

Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications of Graphene Composites: A Survey

Graphene is the name for a monolayer sheet of carbon atoms that are bonded together in a repeating pattern of hexagons. This sheet is only one atom thick. Monolayers of graphene stacked on top of each other. In this article, we have compared the characterization results of graphene and graphene oxide along with synthesis via different methods. A sigma bond connects each atom in a graphene sheet to its three closest neighbours and each atom also contributes one electron to a conduction band that covers the entire graphene sheet. Graphene when oxidized is called graphene oxide (GO) and is mostly used in photoelectric, materialistic, catalyst and energy fields due to its thermal, electrical and mechanical characteristics. It is also used in the field of medical science, drug delivery and biomedical applications. Graphene have been improved due to import of 3D printing technology. In last few years, graphene has taken the attention of most material science researchers due to its various applications. Graphene based polymers and nanocomposites are widely used in sensors, optoelectronics, magneto transport, automotive, biosensors, electronics and aerospace fields.


  • 1. Kuanar B, Mohanty HS, Behera D, Nayak P, Dalai B. An elementary survey on structural, electrical, and optical properties of perovskite materials. Eng Appl Sci Res [Internet]. 2022;49(2):288–99. Available from: .
  • 2. Dash S, Hial PK, Senapati S, Dalai B. A Survey on Various Methods of Extraction and Recovery of Thorium. J Turkish Chem Soc Sect A Chem [Internet]. 2021 Nov 30;8(4):1197–210. Available from: .
  • 3. Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov S V., Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos S V., et al. Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films. Science [Internet]. 2004 Oct 22;306(5696):666–9. Available from: .
  • 4. Novoselov KS, Fal′ko VI, Colombo L, Gellert PR, Schwab MG, Kim K. A roadmap for graphene. Nature [Internet]. 2012 Oct 10;490(7419):192–200. Available from: .
  • 5. Peigney A, Laurent C, Flahaut E, Bacsa RR, Rousset A. Specific surface area of carbon nanotubes and bundles of carbon nanotubes. Carbon [Internet]. 2001 Apr 1;39(4):507–14. Available from: .
  • 6. Gadipelli S, Guo ZX. Graphene-based materials: Synthesis and gas sorption, storage and separation. Prog Mater Sci [Internet]. 2015 Apr 1;69:1–60. Available from: .
  • 7. Bae S, Kim H, Lee Y, Xu X, Park J-S, Zheng Y, et al. Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat Nanotechnol [Internet]. 2010 Aug 20;5(8):574–8. Available from: .
  • 8. Yang W, Ni M, Ren X, Tian Y, Li N, Su Y, et al. Graphene in Supercapacitor Applications. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci [Internet]. 2015 Oct;20(5–6):416–28. Available from: .
  • 9. Tsai I-L, Cao J, Le Fevre L, Wang B, Todd R, Dryfe RAW, et al. Graphene-enhanced electrodes for scalable supercapacitors. Electrochim Acta [Internet]. 2017 Dec;257:372–9. Available from: .
  • 10. Nag A, Mitra A, Mukhopadhyay SC. Graphene and its sensor-based applications: A review. Sensors Actuators A Phys [Internet]. 2018 Feb;270:177–94. Available from: .
  • 11. Gusain R, Kumar N, Ray SS. Recent advances in carbon nanomaterial-based adsorbents for water purification. Coord Chem Rev [Internet]. 2020 Feb 15;405:213111. Available from: .
  • 12. Shao C, Zhao Y, Qu L. Tunable Graphene Systems for Water Desalination. ChemNanoMat [Internet]. 2020 Jul 21;6(7):1028–48. Available from: .
  • 13. Shen H, Zhang L, Liu M, Zhang Z. Biomedical Applications of Graphene. Theranostics [Internet]. 2012;2(3):283–94. Available from: .
  • 14. Phiri J, Gane P, Maloney TC. General overview of graphene: Production, properties and application in polymer composites. Mater Sci Eng B [Internet]. 2017 Jan 1;215:9–28. Available from: .
  • 15. Hu K, Kulkarni DD, Choi I, Tsukruk V V. Graphene-polymer nanocomposites for structural and functional applications. Prog Polym Sci [Internet]. 2014 Nov 1;39(11):1934–72. Available from: .
  • 16. Geim AK. Graphene: Status and Prospects. Science [Internet]. 2009 Jun 19;324(5934):1530–4. Available from: .
  • 17. Yu G, Hu L, Vosgueritchian M, Wang H, Xie X, McDonough JR, et al. Solution-Processed Graphene/MnO2 Nanostructured Textiles for High-Performance Electrochemical Capacitors. Nano Lett [Internet]. 2011 Jul 13;11(7):2905–11. Available from: .
  • 18. Liu L, Yu Y, Yan C, Li K, Zheng Z. Wearable energy-dense and power-dense supercapacitor yarns enabled by scalable graphene–metallic textile composite electrodes. Nat Commun [Internet]. 2015 Jun 11;6(1):7260. Available from: .
  • 19. Shateri-Khalilabad M, Yazdanshenas ME. Preparation of superhydrophobic electroconductive graphene-coated cotton cellulose. Cellulose [Internet]. 2013 Apr 5;20(2):963–72. Available from: .
  • 20. Ren J, Wang C, Zhang X, Carey T, Chen K, Yin Y, et al. Environmentally-friendly conductive cotton fabric as flexible strain sensor based on hot press reduced graphene oxide. Carbon [Internet]. 2017 Jan 1;111:622–30. Available from: .
  • 21. Abdelkader AM, Karim N, Vallés C, Afroj S, Novoselov KS, Yeates SG. Ultraflexible and robust graphene supercapacitors printed on textiles for wearable electronics applications. 2D Mater [Internet]. 2017 Jul 24;4(3):035016. Available from: .
  • 22. Karim N, Afroj S, Malandraki A, Butterworth S, Beach C, Rigout M, et al. All inkjet-printed graphene-based conductive patterns for wearable e-textile applications. J Mater Chem C [Internet]. 2017 Nov 16;5(44):11640–8. Available from: .
  • 23. Lim JY, Mubarak NM, Abdullah EC, Nizamuddin S, Khalid M, Inamuddin. Recent trends in the synthesis of graphene and graphene oxide based nanomaterials for removal of heavy metals — A review. J Ind Eng Chem [Internet]. 2018 Oct 25;66:29–44. Available from: .
  • 24. Balandin AA. Phononics of Graphene and Related Materials. ACS Nano [Internet]. 2020 May 26;14(5):5170–8. Available from: .
  • 25. Ferrari AC, Meyer JC, Scardaci V, Casiraghi C, Lazzeri M, Mauri F, et al. Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers. Phys Rev Lett [Internet]. 2006 Oct 30;97(18):187401. Available from: .
  • 26. Ferrari AC. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron–phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects. Solid State Commun [Internet]. 2007 Jul 1;143(1–2):47–57. Available from: .
  • 27. Ferrari AC, Basko DM. Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene. Nat Nanotechnol [Internet]. 2013 Apr 4;8(4):235–46. Available from: .
  • 28. He Y, Yi C, Zhang X, Zhao W, Yu D. Magnetic graphene oxide: Synthesis approaches, physicochemical characteristics, and biomedical applications. TrAC Trends Anal Chem [Internet]. 2021 Mar 1;136:116191. Available from: .
  • 29. Chen J, Yao B, Li C, Shi G. An improved Hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide. Carbon [Internet]. 2013 Nov 1;64:225–9. Available from: .
  • 30. Brodie BC. XIII. On the atomic weight of graphite. Philos Trans R Soc London [Internet]. 1859 Dec 31;149:249–59. Available from: .
  • 31. Singh DP, Herrera CE, Singh B, Singh S, Singh RK, Kumar R. Graphene oxide: An efficient material and recent approach for biotechnological and biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng C [Internet]. 2018 May 1;86:173–97. Available from: .
  • 32. Bhuyan MSA, Uddin MN, Islam MM, Bipasha FA, Hossain SS. Synthesis of graphene. Int Nano Lett [Internet]. 2016 Jun 9;6(2):65–83. Available from: .
  • 33. Liu W-W, Chai S-P, Mohamed AR, Hashim U. Synthesis and characterization of graphene and carbon nanotubes: A review on the past and recent developments. J Ind Eng Chem [Internet]. 2014 Jul 25;20(4):1171–85. Available from: .
  • 34. Lee HC, Liu W-W, Chai S-P, Mohamed AR, Aziz A, Khe C-S, et al. Review of the synthesis, transfer, characterization and growth mechanisms of single and multilayer graphene. RSC Adv [Internet]. 2017 Mar 9;7(26):15644–93. Available from: .
  • 35. Shmavonyan GS, Sevoyan GG, Aroutiounian VM. Enlarging the surface area of monolayer graphene synthesized by mechanical exfoliation. Armen J Phys [Internet]. 2013;6(1):1–6. Available from: .
  • 36. Wu YH, Yu T, Shen ZX. Two-dimensional carbon nanostructures: Fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and potential applications. J Appl Phys [Internet]. 2010 Oct 1;108(7):071301. Available from: .
  • 37. Marcano DC, Kosynkin D V., Berlin JM, Sinitskii A, Sun Z, Slesarev A, et al. Improved Synthesis of Graphene Oxide. ACS Nano [Internet]. 2010 Aug 24;4(8):4806–14. Available from: .
  • 38. Park S, An J, Jung I, Piner RD, An SJ, Li X, et al. Colloidal Suspensions of Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide in a Wide Variety of Organic Solvents. Nano Lett [Internet]. 2009 Apr 8;9(4):1593–7. Available from: .
  • 39. Hummers WS, Offeman RE. Preparation of Graphitic Oxide. J Am Chem Soc [Internet]. 1958 Mar 1;80(6):1339. Available from: .
  • 40. Razaq A, Bibi F, Zheng X, Papadakis R, Jafri SHM, Li H. Review on Graphene-, Graphene Oxide-, Reduced Graphene Oxide-Based Flexible Composites: From Fabrication to Applications. Materials (Basel) [Internet]. 2022 Jan 28;15(3):1012. Available from: .
  • 41. Cockerell TDA. An Alien Clematis in New Mexico. Science [Internet]. 1899 Dec 15;10(259):898–9. Available from: .
  • 42. Du W, Jiang X, Zhu L. From graphite to graphene: direct liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite to produce single- and few-layered pristine graphene. J Mater Chem A [Internet]. 2013 Aug 20;1(36):10592–606. Available from: .
  • 43. Schniepp HC, Li J-L, McAllister MJ, Sai H, Herrera-Alonso M, Adamson DH, et al. Functionalized Single Graphene Sheets Derived from Splitting Graphite Oxide. J Phys Chem B [Internet]. 2006 May 1;110(17):8535–9. Available from: .
  • 44. Hlekelele L, Franklyn PJ, Tripathi PK, Durbach SH. Morphological and crystallinity differences in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes grown by chemical vapour deposition decomposition of melamine over coal fly ash. RSC Adv [Internet]. 2016 Aug 10;6(80):76773–9. Available from: .
  • 45. Ye R, James DK, Tour JM. Laser-Induced Graphene. Acc Chem Res [Internet]. 2018 Jul 17;51(7):1609–20. Available from: .
  • 46. Antonatos N, Ghodrati H, Sofer Z. Elements beyond graphene: Current state and perspectives of elemental monolayer deposition by bottom-up approach. Appl Mater Today [Internet]. 2020 Mar 1;18:100502. Available from: .
  • 47. Hlekelele L, Franklyn PJ, Dziike F, Durbach SH. TiO 2 composited with carbon nanofibers or nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes synthesized using coal fly ash as a catalyst: bisphenol-A photodegradation efficiency evaluation. New J Chem [Internet]. 2018 Mar 12;42(6):4531–42. Available from: .
  • 48. Knieke C, Berger A, Voigt M, Taylor RNK, Röhrl J, Peukert W. Scalable production of graphene sheets by mechanical delamination. Carbon N Y [Internet]. 2010 Sep 1;48(11):3196–204. Available from: .
  • 49. Song S, Su J, Telychko M, Li J, Li G, Li Y, et al. On-surface synthesis of graphene nanostructures with π-magnetism. Chem Soc Rev [Internet]. 2021 Mar 15;50(5):3238–62. Available from: .
  • 50. Cooper DR, D’Anjou B, Ghattamaneni N, Harack B, Hilke M, Horth A, et al. Experimental Review of Graphene. Int Sch Res Not [Internet]. 2012 Apr 26;2012:501686. Available from: .
  • 51. Song J, Wang X, Chang C-T. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide. J Nanomater [Internet]. 2014;2014:276143. Available from: .
  • 52. Yu H, Zhang B, Bulin C, Li R, Xing R. High-efficient Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Based on Improved Hummers Method. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2016 Nov 3;6(1):36143. Available from: .
  • 53. Malas A, Bharati A, Verkinderen O, Goderis B, Moldenaers P, Cardinaels R. Effect of the GO Reduction Method on the Dielectric Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Crystalline Behavior of PEO/rGO Nanocomposites. Polymers (Basel) [Internet]. 2017 Nov 14;9(11):613. Available from: .
  • 54. Bhargava R, Khan S. Effect of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on structural, optical, and dielectric properties of Mg(OH)2 /rGO nanocomposites. Adv Powder Technol [Internet]. 2017 Nov 1;28(11):2812–9. Available from: .
  • 55. Zaaba NI, Foo KL, Hashim U, Tan SJ, Liu W-W, Voon CH. Synthesis of Graphene Oxide using Modified Hummers Method: Solvent Influence. Procedia Eng [Internet]. 2017 Jan 1;184:469–77. Available from: .
  • 56. Ranjan P, Agrawal S, Sinha A, Rao TR, Balakrishnan J, Thakur AD. A Low-Cost Non-explosive Synthesis of Graphene Oxide for Scalable Applications. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2018 Aug 13;8(1):12007. Available from: .
  • 57. Pei S, Wei Q, Huang K, Cheng H-M, Ren W. Green synthesis of graphene oxide by seconds timescale water electrolytic oxidation. Nat Commun [Internet]. 2018 Jan 10;9(1):145. Available from: .
  • 58. Kavinkumar T, Manivannan S. Improved dielectric behaviour of graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite. Vacuum [Internet]. 2018 Feb 1;148:149–57. Available from: .
  • 59. Jo J, Lee S, Gim J, Song J, Kim S, Mathew V, et al. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide by modified Hummer’s method as anode material for Li-, Na- and K-ion secondary batteries. R Soc Open Sci [Internet]. 2019 Apr 24;6(4):181978. Available from: .
  • 60. Smith AT, LaChance AM, Zeng S, Liu B, Sun L. Synthesis, properties, and applications of graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide and their nanocomposites. Nano Mater Sci [Internet]. 2019 Mar;1(1):31–47. Available from: .
  • 61. Eissa S, N’diaye J, Brisebois P, Izquierdo R, Tavares AC, Siaj M. Probing the influence of graphene oxide sheets size on the performance of label-free electrochemical biosensors. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2020 Aug 12;10(1):13612. Available from: .
  • 62. Guo H-L, Wang X-F, Qian Q-Y, Wang F-B, Xia X-H. A Green Approach to the Synthesis of Graphene Nanosheets. ACS Nano [Internet]. 2009 Sep 22;3(9):2653–9. Available from: .
  • 63. Zainuddin MF, Nik Raikhan NH, Othman NH, Abdullah WFH. Synthesis of reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) using different treatments of Graphene Oxide (GO). IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng [Internet]. 2018 May 1;358(1):012046. Available from: .
  • 64. Sengupta I, Chakraborty S, Talukdar M, Pal SK, Chakraborty S. Thermal reduction of graphene oxide: How temperature influences purity. J Mater Res [Internet]. 2018 Dec 14;33(23):4113–22. Available from: .
  • 65. Dideikin AT, Vul’ AY. Graphene oxide and derivatives: The place in graphene family. Front Phys. 2019 Jan 28;6:149. Available from: .
  • 66. Thiyagu C, Manjubala I, Narendrakumar U. Thermal and morphological study of graphene based polyurethane composites. Mater Today Proc [Internet]. 2021;45:3982–5. Available from: .
  • 67. Verma M, Chauhan SS, Dhawan SK, Choudhary V. Graphene nanoplatelets / carbon nano-tubes/polyurethane composites as efficient shield against electromagnetic polluting radiations. Compos Part B Eng [Internet]. 2017 Jul 1;120:118–27. Available from: .
  • 68. Gedam SS, Chaudhary AK, Vijayakumar RP, Goswami AK, Bajad GS, Pal D. Thermal, mechanical and morphological study of carbon nanotubes-graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles based polyurethane composites. Mater Res Express [Internet]. 2019 May 10;6(8):085308. Available from: .
  • 69. Surekha G, Krishnaiah KV, Ravi N, Padma Suvarna R. FTIR, Raman and XRD analysis of graphene oxide films prepared by modified Hummers method. J Phys Conf Ser [Internet]. 2020 Mar 1 [cited 2023 Jun 22];1495(1):012012. Available from: .
  • 70. Rao S, Upadhyay J, Polychronopoulou K, Umer R, Das R. Reduced Graphene Oxide: Effect of Reduction on Electrical Conductivity. J Compos Sci [Internet]. 2018 Apr 9;2(2):25. Available from: .
  • 71. Khan QA, Shaur A, Khan TA, Joya YF, Awan MS. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide produced through a modified Hoffman method. Suvarapu LN, editor. Cogent Chem [Internet]. 2017 Jan 1;3(1):1298980. Available from: .
  • 72. Romero A, Lavin-Lopez MP, Sanchez-Silva L, Valverde JL, Paton-Carrero A. Comparative study of different scalable routes to synthesize graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Mater Chem Phys [Internet]. 2018 Jan 1;203:284–92. Available from: .
  • 73. He J, Fang L. Controllable synthesis of reduced graphene oxide. Curr Appl Phys [Internet]. 2016 Sep 1;16(9):1152–8. Available from: .
  • 74. Borand G, Akçamlı N, Uzunsoy D. Structural characterization of graphene nanostructures produced via arc discharge method. Ceram Int [Internet]. 2021 Mar 15;47(6):8044–52. Available from: .
  • 75. Wang C, Song M, Chen X, Li D, Xia W, Xia W. Effects of Buffer Gases on Graphene Flakes Synthesis in Thermal Plasma Process at Atmospheric Pressure. Nanomaterials [Internet]. 2020 Feb 11;10(2):309. Available from: .
  • 76. Muniyalakshmi M, Sethuraman K, Silambarasan D. Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide nanosheets. Mater Today Proc [Internet]. 2020 Jan 1;21:408–10. Available from: .
  • 77. Wan W, Zhao Z, Hu H, Gogotsi Y, Qiu J. Highly controllable and green reduction of graphene oxide to flexible graphene film with high strength. Mater Res Bull [Internet]. 2013 Nov 1;48(11):4797–803. Available from: .
  • 78. AL-Saedi SI, Haider AJ, Naje AN, Bassil N. Improvement of Li-ion batteries energy storage by graphene additive. Energy Reports [Internet]. 2020 Feb 1;6:64–71. Available from: .
  • 79. Johra FT, Lee J-W, Jung W-G. Facile and safe graphene preparation on solution based platform. J Ind Eng Chem [Internet]. 2014 Sep 25;20(5):2883–7. Available from: .
  • 80. Tuinstra F, Koenig JL. Raman Spectrum of Graphite. J Chem Phys [Internet]. 1970 Aug 1;53(3):1126–30. Available from: .
  • 81. Schönfelder R, Rümmeli MH, Gruner W, Löffler M, Acker J, Hoffmann V, et al. Purification-induced sidewall functionalization of magnetically pure single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology [Internet]. 2007 Sep 19;18(37):375601. Available from: .
  • 82. Herranz D, Muñoz-Martin M, Cañamero M, Mulero F, Martinez-Pastor B, Fernandez-Capetillo O, et al. Sirt1 improves healthy ageing and protects from metabolic syndrome-associated cancer. Nat Commun [Internet]. 2010 Apr 12;1(1):3. Available from: .
  • 83. Wang H, Robinson JT, Li X, Dai H. Solvothermal Reduction of Chemically Exfoliated Graphene Sheets. J Am Chem Soc [Internet]. 2009 Jul 29;131(29):9910–1. Available from: .
  • 84. Scardaci V, Compagnini G. Raman spectroscopy data related to the laser induced reduction of graphene oxide. Data Br [Internet]. 2021 Oct 1;38:107306. Available from: .
  • 85. Scardaci V, Compagnini G. Raman Spectroscopy Investigation of Graphene Oxide Reduction by Laser Scribing. J Carbon Res [Internet]. 2021 Jun 17;7(2):48. Available from: .
  • 86. Ferrari AC, Robertson J. Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon. Phys Rev B [Internet]. 2000 May 15;61(20):14095. Available from: .
  • 87. Hanifah MFR, Jaafar J, Aziz M, Ismail AF, A. Rahman M, Othman MHD. Synthesis of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets via Modified Hummers’ Method and Its Physicochemical Properties. J Teknol [Internet]. 2015 Apr 15;74(1):189–92. Available from: .
  • 88. Aliyev E, Filiz V, Khan MM, Lee YJ, Abetz C, Abetz V. Structural Characterization of Graphene Oxide: Surface Functional Groups and Fractionated Oxidative Debris. Nanomaterials [Internet]. 2019 Aug 18;9(8):1180. Available from: .
  • 89. Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Piner RD, Kohlhaas KA, Kleinhammes A, Jia Y, et al. Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon N Y [Internet]. 2007 Jun 1;45(7):1558–65. Available from: .
  • 90. Zenkel C, Albuerne J, Emmler T, Boschetti-de-Fierro A, Helbig J, Abetz V. New strategies for the chemical characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their derivatives. Microchim Acta [Internet]. 2012 Oct 12;179(1–2):41–8. Available from: .
  • 91. Cançado LG, Jorio A, Ferreira EHM, Stavale F, Achete CA, Capaz RB, et al. Quantifying Defects in Graphene via Raman Spectroscopy at Different Excitation Energies. Nano Lett [Internet]. 2011 Aug 10;11(8):3190–6. Available from: .
  • 92. Zhang Y, Tang T-T, Girit C, Hao Z, Martin MC, Zettl A, et al. Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene. Nature [Internet]. 2009 Jun 11;459(7248):820–3. Available from: .
  • 93. Fang W, Hsu AL, Caudillo R, Song Y, Birdwell AG, Zakar E, et al. Rapid Identification of Stacking Orientation in Isotopically Labeled Chemical-Vapor Grown Bilayer Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy. Nano Lett [Internet]. 2013 Apr 10;13(4):1541–8. Available from: .
  • 94. Grodecki K, Jozwik I, Baranowski JM, Teklinska D, Strupinski W. SEM and Raman analysis of graphene on SiC(0001). Micron [Internet]. 2016 Jan 1;80:20–3. Available from: .
  • 95. Dehghanzad B, Razavi Aghjeh MK, Rafeie O, Tavakoli A, Jameie Oskooie A. Synthesis and characterization of graphene and functionalized graphene via chemical and thermal treatment methods. RSC Adv [Internet]. 2016;6(5):3578–85. Available from: .
  • 96. Wojtoniszak M, Mijowska E. Controlled oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide with novel oxidants in a bulk scale. J Nanoparticle Res [Internet]. 2012 Nov 30;14(11):1248. Available from: .


Vancouver Dalai B. , Patra B. , Das N. , Sahoo R. , Sahoo D. K. , Parida C. , Dash S. K. Synthesis, Characteristics and Applications of Graphene Composites: A Survey. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry. 2023; 10(3): 757-772.
Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 4 Sayı
  • Yayıncı: Türkiye Kimya Derneği
Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Electrochemical Study of 17β-Estradiol and its Determination in Pharmaceutical Preparations using Square Wave Voltammetry


Production of SBS Reinforced Polyester Composite: Characterization of Physical and Chemical Properties


A Simple, Stable, and Highly Sensitive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Arsenic(III) from Different Biological Media in the Presence of Nanosilica-Cysteine Composite


Structural Properties, Photoluminescence, and Judd-Ofelt Parameters of Eu3+- Doped CoNb2O6 Phosphor

Mustafa İLHAN, Lütfiye Feray GÜLERYÜZ, Mete Kaan EKMEKCİ

Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Few Species of Genus Atalantia (Rutaceae): A Review

Pournima SHELAR, Santosh Kumar SINGH

Synthesis of New Azo Compounds and Their Application for a Simple Spectrophotometric Determination of Methyldopa Drug Using Anthranilic Acid and 2-Aminopyrimidine as Reagents


Assessment of Total Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, β-Carotene Bioaccessibility, HMF Formation, and Color Degradation Kinetics in Pumpkin Pestils


Novel Perylene-Based Antimicrobial PDI Chromophores

Cansu YILMAZ, Pınar GÜNER, Tülin AŞKUN, Funda YÜKRÜK

3- and 4-Arm Star Polymers (PEG3 and PEG4) via Metal-Free Azide-Alkyne Click Reaction

Ufuk Saim GÜNAY

Design, Synthesis and Anti-Bacterial Activity Evaluation of Indole-Based Benzophenone and Their Derivatives

Fekadu Tumoro ERABE, Dagne Adisu KURE, Salah SHERİF