Kamu Diplomasisinde Küresel İşbirliğinin İmkan ve Sınırları: Küresel Kamu Diplomasisi Ağı’nın Analizi

ÖZ Kamu diplomasisi faaliyetleri ülke imajlarının yükseltilmesi açısından rekabetçi bir yapıya dayanmakta ve her ülkenin ülke çıkarlarının başka ülkeler nezdinde elde edilmesine yönelik yürüttüğü faaliyetleri içermektedir. Küresel düzenin bir takım teknik ve politik nedenelere bağlı olarak dönüşümü, sorun ve çözümlerin küreselleşmesi kamu diplomasisini kaçınılmaz olarak küresel işbirliğine yöneltmektedir. Dünyanın farklı bölgelerinden 26 ülkenin kültür diplomasisi kurumlarının oluşturduğu Küresel Kamu Diplomasisi Ağı (GPD Net) kültür diplomasi faaliyetlerinde çoklu işbirliğinin iyi bir örneğidir. Bu çalışma özelde kamu diplomasisi genelde ise kültür diplomasi faaliyetlerinde uluslararası ve kültürlerarası işbirliğinin imkân ve sınırlarını Küresel Kamu Diplomasisi Ağı (GPDNet) üzerinden analiz etmektedir. Bu amaçla GPDNet’in kurumsal yapısı; eylemler, kapasite geliştirme, kültürel ağ ve bilgi değişimi bağlamında değerlendirilmiştir. Küresel işbirliği söylemini analiz etmek amacıyla ise kurumun dijital içerikleri kategorize edilerek içerik analizine tabi tutulmuştur Anahtar Kelimeler: kamu diplomasisi, kültür diplomasisi, GPDNet, Kamu Diplomasisinde Küresel İşbirliği, Kamu Diplomasisinde Rekabet

Global Cooperation in Public Diplomacy: Analysis of the Global Public Diplomacy Network (GPDNet)

Abstract The basis of cultural diplomacy activities is built on the interests of the country. Public diplomacy activities are based on a competitive structure in terms of promoting country images and include activities that each country usually carries out at the national level. The field of public diplomacy is generally far from international cooperation. However, changing conditions in the global context require international and supranational cooperation. In this context, many countries are reshaping their public diplomacy activities in line with the understanding of global cooperation.The Global Public Diplomacy Network (GPD Net), in which Turkey participates, foresees multiple cooperation in cultural diplomacy activities. The cooperation network formed by cultural diplomacy institutions of 26 countries from different parts of the world shows a good example of global cooperation in cultural diplomacy activities. This study analyzes the possibilities and limits of multiple cooperation in public diplomacy in particular and cultural diplomacy in general, through the Global Public Diplomacy Network. For this purpose, GPD Net activities were divided into sub-categories and content analyzes were made. Key words: public diplomacy, Cultural diplomacy, Global cooperation in Public Diplomacy, Global Competition in Public Diplomacy

___

  • Akçay, N. C. (2014). Kamu diplomasisi aracı olarak kültürel diplomasi ve Fransa’nın Afrika ülkelerine yönelik uluslararası öğrenci programları örneği. [Yayımlanmamış uzmanlık tezi]. Ankara. T.C Başbakanlık Yurt Dışı ve Akraba Topluluklar Başkanlığı.
  • Bros, N. (2017). Public diplomacy and cooparation with non-governmental organizations in the liberal pespective of international relations. Journal of Education Culture and Society, 1(2017), 11-22.
  • Burchill , S., & Linklater, A. (2013). Analiz çerçeveleri. içinde S. Burchill, & A. Linklater (Ed), Uluslararası iİlişkiler teorileri. (s. 11-51). (M. Ağcan , & A. Aslan, Çev. ). Küre Yayınları.
  • Chakraborty, K. (2013). Cultural diplomacy dictionary. Institute For Cultural Diplomacy https://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/culturaldiplomacynews/content/pdf/Cultural_Diplomacy_Dictionary.pdf.
  • Cull, N. J. (2006, May 2023). Public diplomacy before Gullion: The evolution of a phrase. USC Public Diplomacy Blog. https://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/public-diplomacy-gullion-evolution-phrase.
  • Digdipblog. (2018, May 20). Narrative alignment as public diplomacy evaluation. https://digdipblog.com/2018/05/20/narrative-alignment-as-public-diplomacy-evaluation.
  • European Commision . (2022, November 1). A stronger Europe in the world: Reinforcing our responsible global leadership. https://commission.europa.eu/strategy-and-policy/priorities-2019-2024/stronger-europe-world_en.
  • European Commision. (2021). The global gateway. Brussel : European Commision.
  • Europen Commision . (2022, May 10). A European green deal: Striving to be the first climate-neutral continent. https://commission.europa.eu.
  • Frangonikolopoulos , C. A., & Spiliotakopulou, E. (2022). The Digitalization of EU public diplomacy: the pandemic crisis and beyond. Hellenic Foundation for Europena and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP).
  • Gemlik, N., Pektaş, A., & Arslanoğlu, A. (2021). Covid-19 salgını sürecinde Twitter haberciliği üzerine nitel bir araştırma. J Health Pro Res, 3(1), 15-24.
  • Gılboa, E. (2001). Diplomacy in the media age: Three models of uses and effects. Diplomacy and Statecraft, 12(2), 1-28.
  • Gonesh , A., & Melissen, J. (2005). Public diplomacy improving practice. The Hague, Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendal.
  • GPDNet. (2023, September 10). Cherter. https://gpdnet.org/charter.
  • Graham, S. E. (2020). Culture and propaganda: The progressive origins of American public diplomacy, 1936-1953. Routledge.
  • Grıffiths, M., Steven, C. R., & Soloma, M. S. (2011). Uluslararası ilişkilerde temel düşünürler ve teoriler. (Cesran, Çev.). Nobel Yayınevi.
  • Günek, A. (2021). Makine merkezli kamu dipolmasisinde etik ve etki problemi. TRT Akademi, 6(13), 768-787.
  • Hocking, B. (2008). Reconfiguring public diplomacy: From competition to collaboration. Clingendael Magazine. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2016-02/20080700_cdsp_chapter_hocking.pdf.
  • Institute For Cultural Diplomacy . (2023, June 1). About us. Institute For Cultural Diplomacy, https://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/index.php?en_abouticd.
  • Institute for Cultural Diplomacy. (2023, June 11). Our programs. Institute For Cultural Diplomacy. https://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/index.php?en_programs.
  • Institute For Cultural Diplomacy. (2023, June 11). ICD projects. Institute For Cultural Diplomacy https://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/index.php?en_projects.
  • Ivey, B. (2008). Cultural diplomacy and the national interest. Cultural diplomacy and the national interest: In search of a 21st-century perspective. The Curb Center for Art, Enterprise, and Public Policy
  • Kiełdanowicz , M. R. (2013). Cultural diplomacy as a form of international communication. interarts. https://interarts.net/descargas/interarts664.pdf.
  • Knutsen, T. L. (2006). Uluslararası ilişkiler teorisi tarihi. (M. Özay, Çev.). Açılım Kitap.
  • Munro, A. (2022, May 12). Public diplomacy. (A. Munro, Düzenleyen). Britannicca, https://www.britannica.com/topic/public-diplomacy.
  • Norrman, K. E. (2013). Definitation, norm and idea for cultural diplomacy. E international Relation.
  • Nye, J. S. (2020). Yumuşak Güç. (R. İ. Aydın, Çev.). BB101.
  • Öğülmüş, S. (2019). İçerik çözümlemesi. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES) , 24 (1) , 213-228.
  • Pratkanis , A. (2009). Public diplomacy in international conflicts: A social influence analysis. N. Snow, & P. M. Taylor (Eds), Routledge handbook of public diplomacy (s. 111-154). Routledge.
  • Redifer, L., Alper, E., Meads , N., & Gursoy, T. (2020). The development path less traveled the experience of Rwanda. Washington, DC : International Monetary Found.
  • Snow, N. (2009). Rethinking public diplomacy. N. Snow, & P. M. Taylor (Eds), Routledge handbook of public diplomacy (s. 3-12). Roudledge.
  • Szondi, G. (2008). Public diplomacy and nation branding:Conceptual similarities and differences. Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.
  • The Anholt-Ipsos Nation Brands Index . (2022, May 6). The Anholt-Ipsos nation brands index. IPSOS. https://www.ipsos.com/en/nation-brands-index.
  • The Diplomatic Service of the European Union. (2022, May 6). Public diplomacy: Building bridges between the European Union and the rest of the world. https://www.eeas.europa.eu/eeas/public-diplomacy_en.
  • Tomlin, G. M. (2016). Murrow's Cold War public diplomacy for the Kennedy administration. Universtiy of Nebraska Press.
  • Trajkov, G. (2015). The influence of public diplomacy on the states visibility in the international relations. Journal of Liberty and International Affairs, 1(2), 70-78.
  • Wallin, M. (2012, December 1). The national security need for public diplomacy. (A. S. Project, Dü.) https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep06026?seq=1.
  • Zaharna, R. (2007). The soft power differential: Network communication and mass communication in public diplomacy. The Hague Journal of Public Diplomacy, 2, 213-228.
İletişim Kuram ve Araştırma Dergisi-Cover
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 4 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 1983
  • Yayıncı: Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi