FUNGUS VE FUNGAL MATERYALLERİN UZUN DÖNEM SAKLANMASI, KORUNMASI VE GERİ KAZANIMI ÜZERİNE VARILAN SON GELİŞME VE YÖNTEMLER

Genel olarak funguslar her yerde bulunurlar ve doğal veya suni olarak hazırlanmış bir dizi besin maddelerini kullanarak çok geniş bir çevrede büyürler. Bazı fungusların izole edilmesi veyetiştirilmesi çok kolay iken bazıları konukçuya özel olduğundan kültür ortamında büyümelerini engelleyen bir takım ilave maddelere ihtiyaç duyarlar. Günümüzde araştırıcıların ihtiyaç duydukları fungal materyallere hızlı ve güvenilir bir şekilde ulaşması, onlara hem zaman hem de izole etmek için harcanacak enerji kaybınının önlenmesini sağlayacaktır. Araştırıcılar, fungal materyallere her ne şekilde ulaşırlarsa ulaşsınlar, fungal materyallerin virulensliklerini hala muhafaza ediyor olmaları çok büyük önem arz etmektedir. Bu bakımdan fungusların muhafaza edildikleri ortamlarda canlılıklarını kaybetmemeleri ve farklı karakterlere sahip olan ırklarının geri kazanımları sırasında dejenerasyon ve kontaminasyona uğramamaları çok önemlidir. Fungusları kültür ortamında muhafaza etmek için çok çeşitli metotlar vardır. Bu metotların hepsinin ortak yanı, fungusların izole edildikleri durumdaki tazeliklerinin korunmasını amaçlar. Ülkemizde kaliteli bir “fungus kültürleri bankası”nın oluşturulması eldeki kültürlerin sayısına, bu alanda harcanacak emeğe, zamana ve en önemlisi maddi imkanlara bağlıdır. Bu derlemede dünyanın önde gelen laboratuvarlarının kullandığı farklı metotlar ile geniş kullanım ve uygulama özelliğine sahip olan ve kısa sürede araştırıcılara güvenle fungal materyalleri sağlayan metotların değerlendirilmesi yapılmıştır.

LATEST DEVELOPMENTS AND METHODS ON LONG TERM STORAGE, PROTECTION, AND RECYCLE OF FUNGI AND FUNGAL MATERIAL

In general, fungi inhabit everywhere and grow in a wide variety of environments utilizing a diverse array of substrates both natural and artificial. Some are host specific thus they either require additional substances that prevent them being grown in culture media or they grow on media that are formulated from the natural materials from which they were isolated. Supplying rapidly and safely fungal materials required by researchers would enable them to gain time and prevent them from spending extra energy for fungal isolation. It is quite important to keep the virulence of fungal isolates under preservation for the researches who reach the fungal materilas in anyway. Under preservation, it is quite important to have viabile cultures as well as avoiding of strain deterioration and minimizing contamination within the fungal population during regeneration. There are several methods of maintaining fungi culture collections by which they aim to keep fungi as fresh as possible in which they were at the time of isolation. Establishing of a “fungi culture collection bank” in our country depends on the available culture collections, time and effort as well as financial support. In this review, several methods used by accredited laboratories around the globe and the commonly used and practised methods enabling rapid and safe distribution of fungal materials to the researches were evaluated.

___

Ashwood-Smith, M.J. and Grant, E. 1976. Mutation induction in bacteria by freeze drying. Cryobiology, 13: 206-213.

Baskarathevan, J., Jaspers, M.V., Jones, E.E., Ridgway, H.J. 2009. Evaluation of different storage methods for rapid and cost-effective preservation of Botryosphaeria Species. New Zealand Plant Protection, 62: 234-237.

Booth, C. 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, UK.

Chu, D. 1970. Forest pathology, storing of agar slants and cultures. Bi-monthly Research Notes, 26: 48.

Correll, J.C., Puhalla, J.E., Schneider, R.W. 1986. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. apii on the basis of colony size, virulence and vegetative compatibility. Phytopathology, 76: 396-400.

Dahmen H., Staub T., Schwinn, F.J. 1983. Technique for long-term preservation of phytopathogenic fungi in liquid nitrogen. Phytopathology, 73: 241-246.

Delatour, C. 1991. A very simple method for long- term storage of fungal cultures. Euroepan Journal of Forest Pathology, 21 (6): 444-445

Denning, D.W., Clemons, K.V., Stevens, D.A. 1992. Quantitative preservation of viability of Aspergillus fumigants. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 30: 485-488.

Dick, M.W. 1965. The maintenance of stock cultures of Saprolegniaceae. Mycologia 57: 828-831.

Dikilitas, M. 2003. Effect of salinity & its interactions with Verticillium albo-atrum on the disease development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Lucerne (Medicago sativa & M. media) plants. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wales, Swansea.

Diogo, H.C., Sarpieri, A., Pires, M.C. 2005. Fungi preservation in distilled water. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, 80 (6): 591-594.

Espinel-Ingroff, A., Montero, D., Martin- Mazuelos, E. 2004. Long-term preservation of fungal isolates in commercially prepared cryogenic microbank vials. Journal Of Clinical Microbiology, 42: (3): 1257–1259.

Fong, Y.K., Anuar, S., Lim, H.P., Tham, F.Y., Sanderson, F.R. 2000. A modified filter paper technique for long-term preservation of some fungal cultures. Mycologist, 14: 127-130.

Hawksworth, D.L. 1991. The fungal dimension of biodiversity: magnitude, significance, and conservation. Mycological Research, 9 (6): 641-655.

Hawskworth DL, Sastramihardja I, Kokke R and Stevenson R. 1990. Guidelines for the Establishment and Operation of Collections of Culture of Microorganisms. World Federation for Culture Collections, Campinas, Brazil.

Hoffmann, P. 1999. Cryopreservation of fungi. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 7: 92-94.

Ito, T. 1991. Frozen storage of fungal cultures deposited in the IFO culture collections. Communication, 15:119–128.

Kilpatrick, R.A. 1976. Fungal flora of crambe seeds and virulence of Alternaria brassicola. Phytopathology, 66: 945- 948.

Kitamoto, Y., Suzuki, A., Shimada, S., Yamanaka, K. 2002. A new method for the preservation of fungus stock cultures by deep-freezing. Mycoscience, 43:143– 149.

Kubatova, A. 2010. Collection of food relevant microscopic fungi under the Czech National Programme of Protection of Genetic Resources of economically significant microorganisms. Czech Journal of Food Science, 28: (1) 79–82.

Laviola, C., Cannizzaro, G., Conigliaro, G., Burruano, S. 2006. Simple techniques for long-term storage of Plasmopara viticola. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 45: 271–275.

Long, R.A., Wood, J.M., Schmitt, G.C. 1978. Recovery of viable conidia of Sclerospora philippinensis, S. sacchari and S. sorghi after cryogenic storage. Plant Disease Reporter, 62: 479-481.

Lopez Lastra, C.C., Hajek, A.E., Humber, R.A. 2002. Comparing methods of preservation for cultures of entomopathogenic fungi. Canadian Journal of Botany, 80: 1126–1130.

Mota, M.A., Campos, A.K., Araujo, J.V. 2003. Sporulation, radial growth and biomass production of A. robusta and M. thaumasium submitted to different methods of preservation. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 34: 157- 160.

Nagai, T., Ideno, A., Tsuge, M., Oyanagi, C., Oniki, M., Kita, K., Horita, M., Aoki, T., Kobayashi, T., Tsuchiya, K. 2000. Preservation of fungi in an atmosphere over liquid nitrogen after uncontrolled freezing. Microbial Culture Collection, 16 (1): 13-22.

Nagai, T., Tomioka, K., Takeuchi, K., Iida, M., Kawada, M., Sato, T. 2005. Evaluation of preservation techniques of microorganism resources in the MAFF Genebank. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 39: (1) 19-27.

Nakasone, K.K., Peterson, S.W., Jong, S.C. 2004. Preservation and distribution of fungal cultures Biodiversity of fungi: inventory and monitoring methods. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2004: p 37-47.

Nuzum, C. 1989. A simple method for the preservation of some non-sporing fungi. Australasian Plant Pathology, 18: 104-105.

Onions, A.H.S., Smith, D. 1984. Current status of culture preservation and technology. In: Batra LR and Ligima T (eds) Critical Problems of Culture Collections. Institute of Fermentation, Osaka.

Palagyi Z, Nagy1 A,. Vastag M,. Ferenczy L and. Vagvölgyi C. 1997. Maintenance of fungal strains on cryopreservative-immersed porous ceramic beads. Biotechnology Techniques, 11 (4): 249–250.

Pasarelli, L., McGinnis M.R. 1992. Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70°C. Journal Of Clinical Microbiology, 30 (4): 1000-1004.

Peters, R.D., Sturz, A. V. 2001. Application of a simple freezing method for short term storage of Phytophthora erythroseptica. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 23:106-109.

Reinecke, P., Fokkema, N.J. 1979. Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides: storage and mass production of conidia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 72: 329-331.

Simpfendorfer, S., Harden, T.J., Murraf, G.M. 1996. Viability and pathogenicity of Phytophthora clandestina after storage in water and liquid nitrogen. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25: 234-239.

Singh, S.K., Upadhyay, R.C., Yadav, M.C., Tiwari, M. 2004. Development of a novel lyophilization protocol for preservation of mushroom mycelial cultures. Current Science, 87 (5): 10.

Singleton, L.L., Mihail, J. D., Rush, C. M. 1992. Methods for Research on Soilborne Phytopathogenic Fungi. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN, U.S.A.

Smith, D. 1983. A two stage centrifugal freeze-drying method for the preservation of fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 80: 333- 337.

Smith, D. 1996. Quality systems for management of microbial collections. In: Samson RA, Stalpers JA, van der Mei D, and Stouthamer AH (eds). Culture Collections to Improve the Quality of Life. Centraalbureau voor schimmecultures, Baarn, The Netherlands, p 137-142.

Smith, D. 1998. The use of cryopreservation in the ex-situ conservation of fungi. Cryo-Letters, 19: 79-90.

Smith, D. 2002. Culturing, preservation and maintenance of fungi. In: CAB International Plant Pathologist’s Pocketbook (eds J.M. Walker, J.M. Lenne and S.J. Waller). p 384-409.

Smith, D. Kollowski, J.A. 1996. Fungi. In: Belt A and Hunter-Cervera, J (eds). Maintaining Cultures for Biotechnology and Industry. Academic Press, New York, p 101-132.

Smith, D., Onions, A.H.S. 1983. A comparison of some preservation techniques for fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 81: 535- 540.

Smith, D., Onions, A.H.S. 1994. The Preservation and Maintenance of Livig Fungi, 2nd edn. IMI Technical Handbooks 2. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Sneh, B., Burpee, L., Ogoshi, A. 1991. Identification of Rhizoctonia Species. St Paul, MN.USA: APS Press.

___

APA Dikilitaş, M. , Katırcıoğlu, Z. & Altınok, H. (2014). FUNGUS VE FUNGAL MATERYALLERİN UZUN DÖNEM SAKLANMASI, KORUNMASI VE GERİ KAZANIMI ÜZERİNE VARILAN SON GELİŞME VE YÖNTEMLER . Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi , 15 (1) , 55-69 .